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Thesis 184 By Chris Pearson – 246070 – MJ-VAPES | Forum
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Thesis 184 By Chris Pearson – 246070 – MJ-VAPES | Forum
Patient Advocate Essays and Research Papers. 3.Explain and critically discuss the view that a good lawyer must be an a-moral advocate or pure legal advocate . Consider the . arguments on thesis 184 both sides of mocking bird essay, this question. Make use of thesis 184, some examples. Papers? The legal profession quite often comes under scrutiny from the general public and 184 frequently is dissertation university portrayed in negative light. Thesis 184? Lawyers are naturally given a higher social status with the income to match. The legal profession however is still one of the most popular occupations that students strive to become. Advocate , Barrister , Ethics 1005 Words | 3 Pages. THE ADVOCATES ACT, 1961 The legal profession as it exists today was created and developed during the British period. However, it is . For Scientific Research? notable that in earlier days of the British period the legal profession was not paid due attention and it was not well organized. Thesis 184? Actually the east India Company was not interested in organizing the legal profession. There was no uniform judicial system in temple the settlements of the east India Company.
After introduction of thesis 184, so many charters by the company it. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 816 Words | 3 Pages. Specific Population and the Advocate Role. Specific Population and the Advocate Role Advocacy and Mediation October 7, 2013 Axia College of University of Phoenix Specific . Population and admission the Advocate Role When one is thesis speaking and genetics lab report referring to advocacy you must understand and know what the thesis 184 word means and how to apply it to real life situations and circumstances. Advocacy can “refer to influencing decisions affecting the of studying essay welfare or interests of another individual or group” (Barsky, 2007). The advocate is fighting for one side versus. Advocate , Barrister , Contract 813 Words | 3 Pages. Advocacy: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Advocate. Learning Disabilities The need for Human Services professionals to assist parents in thesis 184 advocating for their children to receive appropriate services . and to assist in benefits of studying abroad essay the process has become a necessary task. This paper will discuss the role of the advocate in assisting parents through the thesis 184 difficult process of an IEP and to bird essay ensure that the child receives the services and resources needed at the school.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is 184 a law ensuring services to children. Advocate , Individualized Education Program , Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 829 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Advocacy: How it affects the delivery of patient care Geneva Heath NR 451: Capstone Course Melanie Gawlik July 7, . Genetics? 2011 Introduction There tends to be a major direct affect that patient advocacy has on the delivery of health care. For a patient to be able to address their health care needs, their rights to health care, and making sure that they are being treated fairly are important issues and it only seems right for these patient's to have a voice other than their own in order. Health , Health care , Health care provider 662 Words | 3 Pages. BSHS 441 Week 2 Individual Assignment Literature Review of Mediation and Advocacy-1. General General Questions BSHS 441 Week 1 Individual Assignment Paper on 184 a Specific Population and the Advocate Role BSHS 441 Week 2 . Mocking Essay? Individual Assignment Literature Review of Mediation and Advocacy BSHS 441 Week 2 Learning Team Assignment Interview of a Social Service Agency Using Advocates BSHS 441 Week 3 Individual Assignment Paper on the Challenges of Being an Advocate and Neutral Facilitator (Mediator) BSHS 441 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment Interview of a Social.
Advocate , Fiction , Mediation 489 Words | 3 Pages. Q. There Is No Longer Distinction Between the Roles of Solicitor and Barrister. the Two Professions Should Be Emerged. Discuss. Solicitor and barrister are known to be the two most prestigious branches of law with rich history and independency. These two separate professions have . worked side by side in providing justice to the public. The Barristers, referred to thesis 184 bar as skilled advocates where as the solicitors are referred as the legal advisers who offer legal service to clients. University? Their reputation in the society is noticeable. Thesis? But, in recent years a debate on whether these two professions should amalgamate or they should retain their. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Legal Profession - Code of Conduct of research papers, Lawyers.
dishonesty on the accused's part, his conduct was perceived to be below the 184 required standards expected of a professional, and he was struck off the mocking bird essay roll. . Most importantly, a lawyer should complement his knowledge with a firm set of ethics. As advocates of the law, lawyers should uphold stringent standards of morality as well as be able to exercise good judgment and retain integrity. These qualities may seem easy to determine on the surface, but in reality, lawyers often hold strongly opposing. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 1101 Words | 3 Pages. satisfying characteristics, which include a few negative aspects. There is a lot of history to the occupation of thesis 184, a lawyer that stretches back many years. . “The earliest lawyers documented were in Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome. Early Roman advocates were trained in rhetoric, not law, and the judges before whom they argued were also not law-trained” (Lawyer.
Wikipedia). The history of bird, this profession goes back centuries and centuries to a world where law was a completely different thing. Back. Advocate , Barrister , Judge 1759 Words | 5 Pages. ? Advocate Christ medical Center Health Planning and thesis 184 Policy Management EHC 4498 Heather Cooper 2/2/2014 Advocate . Christ Medical Center, opened in 1961, it is a teaching hospital that is ranked as a top one hundred facility and is located in Oak Lawn, Illinois. Advocate Christ Medical Center is a seven hundred sixty-four bed medical center (Center, 2014), in 2012 this facility had forty thousand seven hundred and sixty seven admissions. In 2012 alone this hospital performed eleven thousand. Cardiology , Health care , Hospital 1518 Words | 7 Pages. Explain the main differences between barristers and solicitors. documents such as wills and contracts. They also most commonly provide oral and written advice on legal matters to their clients.
On the other hand, . Dissertation University? barristers mainly spend their time as advocates for 184 clients in benefits abroad court and they also spend their time preparing for court. A barrister is normally called an advocate because they are typically found prosecuting one case and then defending another. Having a solicitor is the 184 only way someone can access a barrister. For Scientific Research Papers? This is because a solicitor can only engage. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 738 Words | 2 Pages. movies and a working lawyer conducting a trial in real life proves unfavorable to the lawyer.Nevertheless, there is thesis that loose connection. A bad play and a . bad case bring criticism not only of the university play and the client but also of the actor and the advocate . Even a good case presents dangers. There are cases that should have been won but are lost.Your adversary makes all the mistakes you hoped he would make.You deliver a marvelous closing argument.You lose. The first time it happens you put it aside. Actor , Advocate , Barrister 894 Words | 3 Pages. Consultation and Social Justice and Counseling.
Instructor: Kathy Blaydes Abstract This paper discuses the importance of social justice advocacy and consultation in the counseling profession. The . introduction is an explanation of social justice advocacy, and the different ways counselors advocate for 184 their clients. Dissertation Temple University? Next, I discussed how I see myself related to advocacy as I become a professional within my area of specialization and my belief about the thesis 184 similarities between advocacy and consultation. After that I discussed how advocacy benefits. Adolescence , Advocate , Justice 305 Words | 3 Pages. the present, participate in presenting or threaten to present criminal charges solely to obtain an advantage in a civil matter.
The maximum penalty for a . violation of this Rule is disbarment. Drosophila Lab Report? 7- Can a lawyer act as both advocate and witness in the same trial? A lawyer shall not act as advocate at a trial in which the lawyer is likely to be a necessary witness except where the 184 testimony relates to an uncontested issue, the testimony relates to benefits of studying the nature and value of legal services rendered in the case. ACT , Advocate , Counsel 952 Words | 2 Pages. Running head: MODEL OF NURSING CARE AND PATIENT SAFETY Model of 184, Nursing Care and Patient Safety October 10, 2009 Model . of Nursing Care and Patient Safety The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the model of nursing care used in books on creative writing my facility, and how it relates to the American Nurses Code of Ethics (ANA) and patient safety guidelines. The hospital I worked for is a catholic based nonprofit organization, which uses Patient Centered Nursing Care model in most of the areas. Anesthesia , Ethics , Hospital 735 Words | 3 Pages. determinations neither of thesis 184, whom is right or wrong nor concerning the for scientific research papers parties decided resolution of the conflict. An advocate , conversely, can . Thesis 184? be defined as one who speaks, plead, or argues in benefits abroad essay favor of propounding a client’s interest as it relates to the resolution of conflict. Advocates are privy to client information, germane to the details of the conflict and otherwise, that helps the advocate successfully to promote the cause or interest of the client. Having two seemingly similar functions, the distinctions.
Advocate , Barrister , Dispute resolution 1081 Words | 3 Pages. the Mayor. Thesis 184? Similar Supreme Courts were established in Madras in 1801 and Bombay in 1823. The first barristers appeared in India after the opening of the . Supreme Court in benefits Calcutta in thesis 1774. As barristers began to come into the Courts on for scientific research papers work as advocates , the attorneys gave up pleading and worked as solicitors. The two grades of legal practice gradually became distinct and separate as they were in England.
Madras gained its first barrister in 1778 with Mr. Benjamin Sullivan. Thus, the establishment. Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 1371 Words | 4 Pages. The Nurses Role in thesis 184 Patient Advocacy. position to always remain an of studying abroad, advocate for their patient . A scenario has been created in 184 which a terminally ill . patient has asked the admission doctor about alternative healthcare treatment options. The doctor in this case dismisses them as quack practices. What role does the nurse play in this situation? “When the patient’s wishes are in 184 conflict with others, the nurse seeks to help resolve the rubric research conflict. Where conflict persists, the nurse’s commitment remains to the identified patient ” (Code of ethics for nurses.
Alternative medicine , Ethics , Health care 1366 Words | 4 Pages. questions that include the law. As I said above there are two kinds of a lawyer- advocate and just an advisor. These two parts of the . profession are a lot different but probably the 184 only thing that they have in common is that they both have something to do with law. Advocates help people in dissertation temple university the court so they want go to thesis 184 jail, or so they won’t pay the money to the other person, who is against them. Most of the time advocates get a lot higher salary then advisors, but it is only if they are good, and admission if. Academic degree , Advocate , Barrister 1217 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Advocacy: a Concept Analysis. ANALYSIS Concept Analysis: Patient Advocacy Abstract The purpose of thesis, this concept analysis is to dissertation temple clarify, define, and refine how . 184? patient advocacy is perceived in fsu essay admission the nursing community. Much of the literature has attempted to define patient advocacy and emphasis its role within the nursing profession. This paper will discuss multiple definitions of patient advocacy from thesis existing literature and refine them into on creative writing, two critical characteristics.
Concept Analysis: Patient Advocacy (10%)I ? SELECTION. Decision making , Health care provider , Illness 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Concept Analysis: Patient Advocacy Yvette Thornton NURS 502 Grand Canyon University April 24, 2013 Concept Analysis: . Thesis 184? Patient AdvocacyIntroduction The concept of patient advocacy was the focus of the article entitled, “Developing a mid –range theory of patient advocacy through concept analysis” by for scientific Xiaoyan Bu and thesis Mary Ann Jezewski published in books on creative writing the Journal of Advanced Nursing 2007. In an attempt to clarify the definition as well as the refine the concept of patient advocacy, the. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1133 Words | 4 Pages. Words Mentioned IN Acts/Rules/Orders: Advocates Act, 1961 - Section 35, Advocates Act, 1961 - Section 35(3), . Advocates Act, 1961 - Section 35B, Advocates Act, 1961 - Section 38 Disposition: Appeal dismissed Case Note: Advocates Act, 1961 - Section 35 -- Professional misconduct--Complainants requesting Court of Session for appointment of amicus curiae to defend them in thesis murder trial--But complainants convicted and books techniques sentenced to death--Appellant advocate meeting them in thesis jail and getting vakalatnama.
Advocate , Bar association , Barrister 2672 Words | 7 Pages. Patient Compliance and fsu essay admission Patient Education. acquiescing, or yielding. The patient is passively abide by the advice and yield to the health care professional. It has a dictatorial . connotation. Thesis? The patient abides by the goals of the health professional. In contrast, the terms adherence and collaboration are used to describe implied that patients have more autonomy and independent in following their treatment planning. Adherence is based on patient -centered model; through research, it has shown to promote patient satisfaction and health outcomes.
Clinical officer , Educational psychology , Health care 915 Words | 3 Pages. but still keep the drosophila genetics lab report information that shared among the two to thesis 184 themselves because at that time the individual trusted in him. The process of the . Lawyer–Client relationship becomes when an individual has committed a crime and needs a zealous advocate to bird represent him in the matter. In other words the defendant needs a best friend who will stand up for him and thesis protect him when the defendant is not able to defend for himself. Although the genetics relationship is similar to a personal friendship the lawyer. Advocate , Attorney at law , Barrister 960 Words | 3 Pages. Censorship Necessary for Proper Education of Guardian. thinks that musical training should start before physical training because the beginning is the most important part as the thesis 184 minds of the children are . malleable and rubric best takes on whatever pattern one wishes to thesis imprint on it (377 b). Fsu Essay? Plato strongly advocates the censorship of 184, storytelling by mothers and nurses because if children’s beliefs absorb false stories then they will become unalterable.
He believes in shaping their souls with these stories rather than shaping their bodies (377c). Books On Creative Techniques? Plato says. Advocate , Fear , Mind 960 Words | 3 Pages. Patient and 184 Nursing Sensitive Indicators. ? In the 1800’s an effort to redefine nursing, by improving upon patient care, Florence Nightingale stands as the patron leader. She went onto . grapple with the task of improving upon deplorable hospital conditions; while, measuring patient’s outcomes in of studying abroad essay a statistical method. Over a hundred years later, more recent compiled research related to a link between hospital staffing issues and adverse patient outcomes grabs the 184 attention of internal and external healthcare populations. In the 90’s and early. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Illness 896 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Flow in Waiting Room Haik Janoian MGT/554 ? Operations Management University of Phoenix Group PA04MBA10 April 5, 2006 . Patient Flow in Waiting Room Healthcare clinics are under a great deal of pressure to reduce costs and improve quality of service.
In recent years, healthcare organizations have concentrated on preventive medicine practices and have tried to bird essay reduce the length of thesis, time that patients stay in a hospital. Outpatient services have gradually become an essential component. Health care , Health care provider , Illness 1780 Words | 5 Pages. interventions and books on creative outcomes Initiates communication with patients before screening and diagnostic procedures/treatments Informs . patients of services and resources Increases health awareness in thesis 184 individuals The Patient Navigator will establish early contact with cancer patients within the community to eliminate the barriers to timely diagnosis and treatment. This position will compassionately provide patients with resources, support programs and services available through. American Cancer Society , Cancer , Health care 1421 Words | 5 Pages.
Importance of Nurse Patient Relationship. Watson defined therapeutic nurse- patient relationship as “a helping relationship that’s based on mutual trust and respect, the nurturing of bird, . faith and thesis 184 hope, being sensitive to self and others, and assisting with the gratification of your patient’s physical, emotional, and spiritual needs through your knowledge and skill” ( as quoted in Pullen, 2010, p.4). Fsu Essay? Nurse’s are expected to portray and act professionally, legally and ethically in order to established an effective nurse-client relationship. Health , Health literacy , Nurse 1817 Words | 5 Pages. HIPAA’s Impact on Patients Rights Now, more than ever is the time to care about the privacy of our medical information. Intimate details . that are shared between Doctors and patients are either stored in file cabinets or data files. The risk of a patient privacy rights being mishandled are high.
This is when HIPAA, which stands for thesis “Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act” comes in to effect. HIPAA was passed by Congress in drosophila genetics 1996 and was used to set a national standard for electronic. Health care , Health care provider , Health economics 921 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Portals HCS/490 January 28, 2013 Russell Wettstein Patient Portals Every day more and more people use the . Thesis? internet to communicate with friends, family, and coworkers. The internet is used for banking, making reservations, reading books, and now they can manage their health care online.
Many providers now offer health care portals to their patients . They can email their physician, check lab results, and even make appointments right from the drosophila genetics comfort of their home. Portals have. Health , Health care , Health care provider 808 Words | 3 Pages. and even more to thesis generate the Emergency Medical Treatment and benefits of studying abroad essay Active Labor Act (EMTALA) by 184 Congress in remedy to its torts, patient dumping . still appear to be an issue in our society today. In fact, patient dumping occurs when hospitals deny treatment to for scientific papers emergency patients -- often because those patients can't pay. As Patient dumping is the practice of refusing to treat patients who cannot pay for healthcare services. Federal anti-dumping law, initiated by Congress as part of the Consolidated Omnibus. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services , Emergency medical services , Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act 977 Words | 3 Pages. understanding. Can do simple fractions. Patient is thesis 184 talkative and understands the hospital setting and benefits his illness.
He speaks about thesis 184 his . personal life and communicates his needs. Patient was in pain and research papers did not want to ambulate; however, he had been told that he needed to walk in order to go home. Patient used logical thinking and ambulated so he could go home on time. Thesis? Under the circumstances of fsu essay, his hospitalization, we did not observe the patient using mathematical or organizational skills. . Child development , Developmental psychology , Human height 802 Words | 4 Pages. Reflection on 184 Assessment of Asthmatic Patient.
A reflective overview: Developing knowledge on the assessment and intervention of asthmatic patient focusing on books on creative writing adult Introduction . In this essay, I need to reflect on the situation that taken place during my clinical assignment to develop and 184 utilize my experiences on the assessment and papers intervention of asthmatic patient in my work place. 184? In this reflection, I am going to use Gibbs (1988) Reflective Cycle. This model is lab report a recognised framework for my reflection. Gibbs (1988) consists. Asthma , Communication , Facial expression 2544 Words | 7 Pages.
Importance of Patient Care Patient care is learning the 184 basics of fsu essay, health care in order to meet the patient’s needs. Some basic . concepts that are learned are: professionalism, management of illness, and safety techniques. Thesis 184? Patient care is an essential part of the health care field because the skills learned will be used constantly to mocking bird essay ensure patient safety. Therefore, it is important in any profession to understand every aspect of patient care. The health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 872 Words | 3 Pages. various kinds of situations and many emergencies. However, while you might be prepared to thesis 184 deal with emergencies, dealing with difficult . patients is fsu essay another treatment in itself. Every health care provider has its share of 184, difficult patients . Drosophila? You dread seeing their names on your daily schedule, while the office staff is wary of returning their calls. Difficult patients are usually clingy, manipulative, dependent, non-compliant, self-destructive, hostile and 184 even litigious.
They feel that they deserve. Complaint , Health care , Health care provider 663 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Confidentiality 1 Article background: “Some 13 per cent of US medical schools have reported that their students . have leaked confidential information about of studying abroad essay patients via blogs or social networking websites. The students didn't name names, but did provide enough personal information, such as the medical condition involved and hospital, for patients or their families to recognize who is being described…The information was provided by thesis medical school administrators as part. Anatomy , Doctor , Doctor of Medicine 1003 Words | 3 Pages.
? Patient Satisfaction Patient satisfaction is at on creative writing the core of patient centered medicine. Improved . patient satisfaction not only leads to an enhanced patient experience—something every sick or injured patient deserves—it is thesis also associated with improved treatment outcomes. Measuring and fsu essay admission reporting on patient satisfaction with health care has become a major industry. Background Patient satisfaction is a widely used health care quality metric. However, the relationship between patient satisfaction and. Health care , Health care provider , Hospital 811 Words | 2 Pages. Title: Access and Patient Safety Issues Author: Dorcas Moore Capella University Access and thesis Patient Safety Issues . Patient Safety: Multiple failed organizational and dissertation temple departmental processes may lead to wrong patient , wrong procedure, wrong side or wrong site. Prevention of these errors requires a safety system to ensure accurate scheduling and procedure ordering. Proper patient identification will also eliminate these errors. Ensuring correct patient identification is a recognized healthcare. Health care , Health care provider , Healthcare 856 Words | 3 Pages.
Psychosocial Factors and Patient Education 09 Oct 11 Zahava Ohana Homework Week Two (1) Give examples of psychosocial factors that affect . the health care professional and 184 the effect those factors could have on the patient education; Patient’s background. For example, that patient came from a background that does not believe on any medicines. They go to a “voodoo doctor” for admission some spiritual interventions and they are content on that. Because they are not too well educated or maybe it is. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1281 Words | 4 Pages. role in Patient Education By Shannon Reidt, PharmD and thesis Todd D. Sorensen, PharmD Upon conclusion of this program, the pharmacist should be . able to: 1. Explain the need for pharmacist-based patient education.
2. List the steps recommended for the pharmacist-conducted patient education process. 3. Describe the books recommended components of the pharmacist-conducted patient education. 4. Thesis 184? Evaluate the evidence supporting patient medication education. 5. Explain the role of OBRA-90 on patient medication. Health care , Health care provider , Medical prescription 2164 Words | 7 Pages. Concept of for scientific research, Patient Satisfaction Nursing theories gives directions and guidance for structuring nursing practice and also these theories are . the part of nursing education and research. Many of the nursing theories are based on the concept of caring.
Watsons Human caring theory one of the well-known caring theory. The institution I work for uses the caring model which is based on the human caring theory of Jean Watson. “Transpersonal Caring Relationship” is the foundation of her theory. Watson based. Health care , Health care provider , Healthcare 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Safety and Efforts of Infection Prevention in the Surgical Field Dana Cook Nova Southeastern University Patient . Safety and thesis Efforts of university, Infection Prevention in the Surgical Field It is estimated that 1 in 10 patients will experience a nosocomial infection (Biddle, 2009). With this staggering fact, patient safety and thesis 184 infection prevention is at the forefront of healthcare. Rubric? Many changes have occurred in this area since the 1840s. This is when Semmelweis, a Viennese obstetrician, made. Hand washing , Health care , Health care provider 1454 Words | 4 Pages. not only the medications and treatments but also the thesis 184 personal connection between patients and their caregivers Through these people, Schwartz . learned how to handle his physical, spiritual, and emotional needs.
Physically, Schwartz was in books on creative writing a state of readiness for enhanced knowledge. In this instance a patient expresses an interest to learn about his/her choices in relation to thesis his/her condition. When cancer patients take their lives into their hands, and decide to cooperate and join the fight to. Anxiety , Clinical officer , Health 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Patient confidentiality In a television episode of ER which aired on NBC in 2000, Carol Hathaway became aware of risky sexual behaviors that . had led to a 14 year old girl having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and bird essay cervical cancer. Prior to finding this information out, Carol Hathaway had promised the patient that she would not tell anyone about whatever the patient discussed with her. But upon thesis, realizing the high risk of the girl’s behavior, Carol Hathaway came to find herself in dissertation temple a dilemma. Health , Health care , Health care provider 919 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Privacy HCS/335 February 9, 2012 In health care patient privacy is thesis 184 important in organizations. . Patients have a right to have their information protected and confidential at mocking bird essay all times. Patient Privacy is a major concern and has enforced privacy laws into 184, place, which protect patients medical and the confidentiality of records. Bird? Patients have a right to understand also exactly what information is private and protected.
Patient put their trust in thesis 184 their health care. Health care , Health care provider , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 1226 Words | 4 Pages. ISSUES IN PATIENT CARE LASONDRA HOLLIE ISSUES IN PATIENT CARE Patient cares issues in on creative the healthcare field is . very profound in United States issues surrounding the medical field can make are break an thesis, individual’s career. Patient care can be very intense in dissertation the medical field in most sittings it’s hard to separate and individual emotions especially in the field of pediatric health care however when loved ones get involved with the patient it’s a known fact that issues in patient dramatic And. Health , Health care , Healthcare 1038 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Confidentiality and HIPAA Tamika Marshall HPIC/245C Fundamentals of Information Systems for thesis 184 Health Care July 21, 2013 University . of Phoenix After three years of making sure they got it correct, the Unites States signed into admission, law HIPAA. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act was developed by The Department of Health and 184 Human Services. August 21, 1996 changed the way medical professionals conducted patient business forever.
The. Health care , Health care provider , Health Insurance Portability and benefits abroad Accountability Act 593 Words | 3 Pages. This paper explores different peer-reviewed articles that attempts to shed some light on thesis 184 the phenomenon of the lived experience of patients . with cancer; supporting the fact that individuality is a huge factor in benefits of studying the care of cancer patients . Manu types of thesis, cancers exist and patients should be treated as individuals versus as a disease or diagnosis. As oncology nurses we accumulate knowledge on a daily basis that may be revised in practice. Therefore, it becomes our innate duty to rubric visit the literature. Breast cancer , Cancer , Chemotherapy 1904 Words | 5 Pages. Patient satisfaction is critically important to the health care industry today due to the competitive nature of the field. . Patients have many choices when it comes to thesis seeking medical attention, and hospitals are dependent on return business to stay operational. Hospitals have traditionally utilized the semi-private room model in order to increase profitability. University? A semi-private room is a room shared by two patients . 184? Each patient is given their own bed, but they usually share a single bathroom. Health care , Health care provider , Hospital 2195 Words | 6 Pages.
Running head: Tracer Summary 1 Patient 453355 Tracer at Nightingale Community Hospital Patient Tracer Summary 2 . Patient 453355 Tracer at Nightingale Community Hospital To provide an drosophila, accurate assessment of the systems and processes for the delivery of care, treatment, and thesis services at the Nightingale Community Hospital, weekly patient chart reviews of patient medical cases is performed using The Joint Commission tracer methodology for a thorough review of current services and books possible. Communication , Critical phenomena , Critical point 984 Words | 4 Pages. Patient Privacy Destiny Hill HCS 335 October 2, 2011 Patient Privacy The law protecting patients ’ . rights and privacy known as Health Insurance Probability and Accountability (HIPPA) was enacted and signed into 184, law by President Bill Clinton in fsu essay admission 1996. HIPPA is thesis 184 created to temple help protect patients ’ medical records and personal health records nationwide in addition to keeping all medical information confidential. Documents are filed and stored, but with technology evolving documents. Electronic medical record , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Hospital 1151 Words | 4 Pages. Patient Safety at Grand River Hospital amp; St. Mary’s General Hospital Most patients would like to think that safety is a . Thesis? major priority at books on creative writing techniques the hospital they are visiting.
They would like to believe that the hospital actively engages in practices that should nearly diminish any possibility for an accident or mistake to occur. However, the premise of patient safety is relatively new. Medical errors remain a sensitive topic with patients , physicians, and hospital administrators. Physicians and. Health care , Health care provider , Hospital 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Communicating with Dementia Patients Monica Wolfe Therapeutic Communications Everest University August 3, 2012 ABSTRACT Dementia is the . progressive debilitation of the cognitive function of an individual which affects their ability to properly process thought. Dementia can be brought about by 184 the normal process of aging, or can have its onset which results in damage from a stroke, or it may be brought on because of a disease process, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Although dementia is common. Alzheimer's disease , Communication , Health care provider 1070 Words | 4 Pages. Politics, Legislation, and Implications to Patient Care. Politics, Legislation, and Implications to drosophila Patient Care Abstract There are constant changes to laws and thesis 184 . legislation regarding patient care and safety. The purpose of this report is to inform the reader of recent and upcoming changes to on creative techniques legislation that may affect nursing care of thesis, patients . Research by L. Aiken, et al. and mocking essay A. Thesis? Tourangeau, support the need for higher education of registered nurses. Their research proves that patient outcomes are improved when registered. Academic degree , Healthcare occupations , Higher education 2287 Words | 7 Pages. hospitals, nursing homes, and physicians' offices that their staff would appropriately deny patient information to an unknown caller?
Too . often, unauthorized people succeed in extracting protected information from health care providers. Invasion of privacy also affects noncelebrities, when anyone seeks health information the patient has not chosen to share. More often, though, scam artists seek patients ' billing information for financial gain. The patient's insurance identifier is then used by an. Centers for Medicare and dissertation university Medicaid Services , Health care , Health care provider 979 Words | 3 Pages. need to listen as a moral act. Thesis? In a sense, it is a person's duty to listen to the stories of the drosophila lab report ill. In doing so, one can more fully comprehend the story . being told and in turn, be able to relate in some way to the patient . This allows for a more full understanding of what the patient is going through and thesis opens the eyes of the dissertation listener in ways that are beneficial for him/her. This way of thinking often deteriorates when the listener is thesis 184 not just a friend or family, but the admission appointed physician or doctor.
Healing , Human , Illness 1708 Words | 5 Pages. I am increasingly convinced that many (thousands) of patients pass in out of our nation's teaching hospitals without ever really being . Thesis? examined: the interns/residents (our physicians-in-training) don't examine them, and their teaching attendings don't examine them either (they just sign-off on the trainees' notes). I've been an inpatient teaching attending (medicine) for 10 years, and drosophila lab report I'm seeing this more more. Why do I type about it now? The other day, one of my interns (one of.
Heart murmur , Hospital , Medical education 1560 Words | 4 Pages. Gabriel College Old Buswang, Kalibo, Aklan A Collection of Interviews Presented to Mrs. Lenore O. Medina, RN, MAN Instructor In Partial Fulfillment . of the Requirements in Advance Computer Application with Electronic Spreadsheet PATIENT PROFILE Prepared by thesis 184 Jamie Nacar Christy Jade Reyes Eleonor Tumlos Levi Gale Valencia Mardelyn Zaradulla February 2013 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We, the mocking essay Interviewers, would like to thank the thesis several persons who supported and read this text with. Health care , Health care provider , Hospital 590 Words | 3 Pages. Patient Teaching: Importance of books on creative writing, Repositioning Sean Crayton University of Toledo College of Nursing Patient Teaching: . Importance of thesis, Repositioning Assessment of Patients Learning Needs M.C. is an elderly male who was admitted and mocking bird treated for a fall and thesis hip fracture. He had surgery, is bed ridden but is soon to be released.
He and his family need proper teaching on for scientific the importance of reposition as to avoid obtaining pressure ulcers during his limitations to extensive bed rest and staying off. Education , Intelligence , Learning 1082 Words | 4 Pages.
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Essay on Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is thesis 184 a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and mocking, college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of thesis 184, Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of university, Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Solution to thesis, Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Introduction to bird essay, Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the 184, Earth from the research, ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. Thesis 184! If the ozone layer is rubric for scientific research papers depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is thesis considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.
In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an rubric for scientific papers, early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only thesis 184, that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Benefits Abroad Essay! Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to create the 184, problem of genetics lab report, ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the leading cause. Many countries have called for thesis 184 the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical.
However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in many products. Discovered in the 1930s by American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in of studying, refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and thesis, throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the CFC and admission, attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 184, 100,000 molecules of ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in mocking bird essay, the stratosphere.
Only in 1984, when the ozone layer hole was discovered over Antarctica, was the proof truly conclusive. Thesis 184! At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. There would still be no way to remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and fsu essay admission, photo-dissociates into two oxygen atoms. These unite with other O 2 molecules to form ozone.
During the thesis 184, process surplus energy of nascent O 3 is essay often transferred to the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is effective in 184, absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessarily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is compensated by the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the production and decomposition of ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. The heat generated during the reaction causes a rise in books writing, temperature of the stratosphere. Secondly, the thesis, photochemical process absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of wavelength from 2000 A to 3500 A. Hence the dissertation, atmosphere is heated because of thesis 184, this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is temple university shielded from these radiations. Without it, life on thesis 184 the earth would be completely destroyed. The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the sun. Papers! So the ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the 184, fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of its ability to benefits abroad essay, remove electrons from thesis 184, other molecules.
It occurs as a natural component of air. It is drosophila lab report also formed in ambient air by photochemical reactions of primary pollutants. Its higher concentration is generally found in large urban areas of the world, which are characterized by automobile—dependent transportation and petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is produced as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and thesis 184, VOMs are emitted in large amount by vehicles, other important sources of VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. According to British scientists, this surface ozone is responsible for the substantial reduction in the yields of major crops like wheat and rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over rural areas. There are the admission, other sources of ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and 184, even in rubric, photocopying machines. Ozone also occurs in thesis 184, air and admission, water purification plants and oil wax, textiles and thesis 184, inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and destruction of books on creative writing techniques, ozone in 184, the stratosphere.
The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and stable ozone layer. However only oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the present situations. Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in recent years by a number of human activities. Writing Techniques! Many of the processes, which are responsible for the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the reacting species. The most common of these species have been identified to thesis, be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Each of these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in varying degrees, depending on altitude and the mixing ratio. Mocking! For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for about 70% of the total mechanism of ozone destruction, including the oxygen only 184, process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.
The NO x cycle in the region just above the troposphere has been found to be responsible for essay about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the following two photochemical reactions: where O is excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to the natural processes and their relative importance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in thesis 184, the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in the lower region of the stratosphere: In the fsu essay admission, upper atmosphere, NO is produced by reactions involving atomic and ionic species of nitrogen and thesis 184, oxygen. These species are produced by the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Photodecomposition of N 2 is possible at altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.
The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natural source of on creative, NO: At altitudes of 184, less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is excited state oxygen. The principal source of nitrous oxide is the process of denitrification in soils having high concentration of nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is dissertation due (to some extent) to enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers worldwide.
Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in the troposphere is steadily increasing, the thesis, production of university, stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in a large part, be attributed to natural causes. Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for 184 much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at benefits abroad altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is thesis 184 not considered to be major contributor to on creative techniques, the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and halons are entirely manmade with wide applications in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and metal clearing, foam blowing and modern firefighting. Thesis 184! They act as a catalyst in the destruction of dissertation temple university, ozone layer in the stratosphere.
The rate of destruction of ozone is further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the exhausts of large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). A wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about 20-40 years for these chemicals to travel and reach the stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for 184 more than 100 years. On Creative! The travelling time for CFCs and halons to reach to stratosphere may range from 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in the troposphere today may take 20 to 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and 184, halons reach to stratosphere, the drosophila genetics, chlorine and bromine atoms present in these chemicals are released as a result of interaction with UV radiations in the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the troposphere in the gas phase because of strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in the earth’s environment, including in 184, the troposphere. Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into the stratosphere. At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of being exposed to the intense flux of energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.
The released chlorine radical is capable of taking part in university, the catalytic decomposition of ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of 184, ozone. At 30 km, the natural contributions to ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the total. A significant natural precursor of atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is produced biogenically from the oceans, from the burning of vegetation and drosophila lab report, from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of chlorine. Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from sea-salt spray are short-lived in the troposphere and most of them are washed out through the rainfall before they reach the stratosphere. There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,
Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in the cycle and together these reactions account for about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of 184, atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is a significant destruction of benefits abroad essay, ozone by chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and halons, scientists are trying to modify the relative amounts of fluorine, chlorine and hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common approach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the content of hydrogen reduces the thesis, inertness of the compound and in this way the lifetime of the compound in troposphere may be made short. The presence of hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and flammable. But the higher reactivity is essay a disadvantage in many applications. If the thesis 184, proportion of fluorine is increased at the expense of chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of C-F bond is larger than C-Cl bond. This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. For compounds containing no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is no potential to deplete ozone.
Increasing the research, chlorine content is undesirable, because the ability to destroy ozone will be higher and thesis 184, because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is admission more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and thesis 184, it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the troposphere and has residence time of 18 years. Mocking Bird! It is neither very flammable nor have chlorine. Thesis! So it is not expected to have ozone depleting potential. Rubric For Scientific Research! HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is another replacement for CFC. It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in 184, fire extinguishers because of the following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to which they settle over books on creative techniques, and smother a fire at ground level.
(b) Bromine atom terminates the radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion process. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is thesis 184 also a potent ozone depleting substance. In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the chlorine analogues in terms of on creative techniques, depletion of thesis, ozone. Because of this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. University! For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and thesis, 6.0 respectively. Essay # 4. Antarctic and books on creative techniques, Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is a key factor in ozone loss, along with chlorine and bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of more than 26.5 million sq.km – larger than the entire area of North America, including the US, Canada and Mexico combined. In the year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. km.
In 2002, ozone hole over thesis, Antarctica was not only books on creative techniques, much smaller than what it was in 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. km. In September 2002, a figure well below the more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an annual phenomenon over the South Pole during August and September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.
Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on cloud particles help chlorine and bromine gases to rapidly destroy ozone. By early October, temperatures typically start to warm and thesis 184, the ozone layer starts to recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on natural year to year variability of atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of ozone over benefits of studying, a relatively short time. 184! The conditions include a complex combination of climate factors as well as accumulation of reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about a major loss of on creative, ozone, especially at thesis 184 the onset of the first day light of the polar spring. During the long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of air is books writing drawn towards the South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of intense cold and the Earth’s rotation.
The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in the absence of light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of HNO 3 and H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the thesis 184, temperature decreases to 187 K. Of Studying Abroad Essay! These clouds are made up of 184, relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in size. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and nitrogen containing species (mainly hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on the surface of PSCs and consequently release chlorine molecules and HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the dissertation temple, onset of sunlight. 184! At that time solar radiation provides energy for the photolysis of chlorine and HOCl to produce the chlorine radical species.
The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to dissertation temple university, following reactions: Depletion of 184, ozone occurs rapidly so that even in benefits essay, some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to half or even less of their winter value. 184! This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to break up and the PSCs to disappear. This occurs in mid to on creative, late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and the ozone begins to recover to pre-hole levels. In the thesis 184, Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in mocking, the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to be present at higher concentrations than usual. Stratospheric sulphate is usually in thesis, the form of an aerosol and university, acts as a catalyst for the removal of N 2 O 5 by forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monoxide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). As a result, higher concentrations of reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to more rapid ozone depletion. 184! In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the stratosphere (not just at the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.
Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the benefits, most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and thesis 184, other infectious diseases. Admission! According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected.
The environment will also be negatively affected by thesis, ozone depletion. Mocking Essay! The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Thesis! Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by on creative, depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to ensure that the thesis, ozone layer is dissertation temple not destroyed.
Because CFCs are so widespread and used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is 184 hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the temple university, difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs.
In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to reduce usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the 184, treaty did “too little, too late”, as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to essay, ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and written laws restricting the use of thesis 184, CFCs.
Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and people in general are becoming more aware of the lab report, dangers of ozone depletion.
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What is the thesis 184 capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the dissertation university memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001). 184! In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at mocking essay once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Thesis 184! Tuholski and colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). Dissertation Temple! They also highlight the thesis fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by temple university working memory capacity. It is thesis particularly important to be clear on the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the rubric for scientific research intact brain’s functioning it is 184 difficult to assess whether an fsu essay admission individual has a deficit in ability (Parkin, 1996). This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the research up to date and illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity. The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is defined as the limit to thesis the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. In this participants had to recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used.
This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in a linear fashion along with the amount of information per dissertation university unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for thesis 184 information sources of different types and drosophila genetics lab report bit quotients, compared to expected results for constant information. Results from Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of 184 information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of fsu essay admission information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information. However an apparent contradiction to thesis 184 this is the fact that, if an English word is worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect.
The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of bits into chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of multiple bits of information. It is benefits of studying abroad essay interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to remember chunks of thesis 184 information, the drosophila lab report amount of thesis 184 bits in each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is not a simple case of being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Temple! Recoding is the process by which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to thesis 184 chunks. Thus the for scientific research conclusions that can be drawn from 184 Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an accepted limit to the number of chunks of information that can be stored in on creative writing techniques immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of information within each of those chunks is able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the thesis 184 recall of the same number of chunks. The modern view of short-term memory capacity. Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from techniques results such as those from Chen and Cowan, in thesis which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of dissertation absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of 184 words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005).
This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on mocking bird, the circumstances. Cowan refers to the maximum number of thesis 184 chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001). It is noted that the number of fsu essay admission chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from thesis long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the capacity of short-term memory. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the writing techniques ability to 184 rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001). Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001). For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to bird essay attend properly to thesis 184 the target stimulus.
Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to bird essay repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005). Similarly the thesis 184 word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996).
This is similar to Miller’s chunking of information, if one were to assume that the spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information. Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of abroad 12 separate bits of thesis information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of of studying essay chunking the letters. Thesis 184! However it is suggested that the well known acronyms of governmental and benefits abroad industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory.
The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001). This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in the memory store for a specific time. However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of short-term memory.
There are a variety of thesis methods used to measure the capacity of short-term memory. These include enumeration, whole report and alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and fsu essay admission repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for thesis 184 selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to count, and measuring the reaction time for each number. It is argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the admission reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001). As can be seen from figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the reaction time is 184 relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at fsu essay admission which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the thesis easy upper limit in drosophila lab report terms of this particular version of short-term memory. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of thesis counting that limits the working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and books techniques overall time required to attend to the items (Cowan, 2001).
Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an array presented. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in thesis which only specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for abroad whole report procedures and links this to sensory memory (Cowan, 2001). Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report.
In this any and all information is 184 elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only rubric research, cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Thesis! Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen. Mocking! Participants are required to identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in thesis figure 4), having watched the essay dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below). Figure 4. An example of the dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of words with a variable number of other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to this repeated word.
It has been found that up to thesis 4 items can be reliably recognised in this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the rubric for scientific research long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of nonwords (McKone, 2000). Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is related to the limited nature of the focus of attention. Figure 5. The reaction time and 184 number of words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is difficult to separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is affected by rehearsal.
Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to fsu essay remove all rehearsal (probably the thesis 184 most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at drosophila genetics lab report any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is thesis true to say that his conclusions of drosophila lab report 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Thesis! Carlson, N. (2001). Learning and mocking bird essay memory: Basic mechanisms. Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465).
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. (2005). Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354. Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85.
Delvenne, J. F. (2005). The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. Green, C. Thesis 184! S., Bavelier, D. Benefits Abroad! (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of 184 action video game players. Drosophila Genetics! [Electronic version].
Cognition, in press, 1-29. McKone, E. (2000). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131. Miller, G. A. (1956). Thesis! The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996).
Spoken language impairments. In A. J. University! Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153). Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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