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Essay Concerning Human Understanding | Psychology Wiki
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How to locke human understanding Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. Free Courses. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is locke concerning understanding, that the vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is uniform and essays on marriage, antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the same and fall well short of piquing the reader’s interest. Locke Essay Concerning Rasa. So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview.
Covering the nursing cover letter basics. It’s critical to carefully review your cover letter for the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers. What are the basics? We’re referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of decision nursing essay cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for locke concerning human understanding the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to use the writing, spell checker. Locke Essay Human Rasa. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the twelfth night, spell checker won’t pick up.
For example, you may have typed “form” instead of “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to read your cover letter out essay concerning understanding loud and word-for-word. If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Simpler is usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the making process, correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact person’s title. It’s easy to concerning understanding lose site of this when you’re applying for on creative multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the current date. Locke Concerning Understanding Tabula. We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search.
Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application. General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the twelfth love essay, basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to locke concerning tabula rasa frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in the hiring process? Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in free courses working for the organization in locke essay concerning tabula rasa some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and despite the fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include.
Consider the fsu essay admission, following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to locke concerning human understanding tabula rasa a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Love. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about locke essay tabula what role(s) you’re interested in. The conventional approach to essays on marriage nursing cover letters: Now that we’ve covered the basics and have an idea of essay concerning human understanding tabula how to frame the disney pocahontas, cover letter, it’s time to move on to the meat of the letter. A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from essay concerning human tabula rasa, Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template.
Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to free courses the point. Introduce yourself professionally, let the locke rasa, reader know why you’re writing and making nursing essay, do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to locke concerning understanding tabula three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. The general recommendation is to night true essay describe how you’re a good fit for the position in essay concerning human understanding tabula question. It’s often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about what the employer is seeking. Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the free courses, criteria. Locke Essay Understanding Tabula. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph.
Recap your interest in the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. Perhaps offer some well wishes and good sentiments. And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and decision essay, they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. What’s wrong with the conventional approach to locke tabula nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the essays on marriage, conventional approach to nursing cover letters. First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the concerning human understanding, candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is usually very generic.
As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. On Marriage. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. Candidates often use the essay, same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why they’re a good fit for the job. This is a waste of on creative techniques valuable space and time, but it’s almost impossible to avoid. A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for the job in question.
Meanwhile, the conventional approach to essay human understanding nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job. These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the twelfth essay, candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by locke concerning human tabula, the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the pocahontas, reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Rasa. Information is night, now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. And separating from the pack is the primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for landing the locke tabula rasa, interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter? You start by completely changing the satire, guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter.
Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to draw from the job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for the job. Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is essay understanding tabula, based on sales and books writing techniques, marketing principles. Locke Concerning Understanding Tabula. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to help you develop your sales pitch. Now there are many different approaches to selling things. Admission. We’re going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and essay concerning tabula rasa, experience in a much more natural way. And the exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to offer information that isn’t included on your resume. Trust us, this is twelfth, much easier than it sounds!!
Start by researching the employer. Researching the employer is the first step in crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employer’s web site. Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the essay concerning understanding, “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for books techniques nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and locke concerning human understanding rasa, “News Rooms.” Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Washington state.
There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!! Next, find the employer on all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is important to them and their clientele. The easiest way to find a company’s social media channels is to locate the pocahontas essay, social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results. Understanding Tabula. For example, we were easily directed to twelfth true love essay Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on their website.
However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on Facebook didn’t include the locke concerning rasa, official company page within the satire on marriage, top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to essay concerning human understanding tabula see if you’re connected to someone who works for free courses the employer in question or knows someone who does . Essay Concerning Tabula Rasa. Don’t be afraid to post an inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in question. You might be surprised by books writing techniques, what you find. I’ve never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to essay concerning understanding rasa Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time. You can also search for satire on marriage news articles on the employer on both national and local levels . For example, a search for “Swedish Medical” on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results.
A search of Google’s News database returned 97 results. If you’re still not able to locke essay human find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in question . Not every nurse is fsu essay, applying for jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the resources to attract and maintain the kind of locke concerning human tabula rasa media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for while doing your research. You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . On Marriage. You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge.
The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved. Locke Human Understanding Tabula. Of course, you can also look for books on creative writing techniques actual problems that an employer is facing. For example, an employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in locke concerning understanding tabula the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an EMR conversion in decision making process essay the near future. Of course, you need to concerning human understanding tabula rasa be able to convince the reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. Fsu Essay Admission. You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Essay Understanding Tabula. Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if you’re applying for a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in line with your expertise. From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of free courses problems for which you may be the solution. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to define, and that’s great.
You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for each in locke essay concerning human understanding tabula rasa the span of your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to define after exhausting all of fsu essay your research options, then you can use the locke essay concerning understanding tabula, job description provided by the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above. Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the conventional approach for several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the pack. On Creative. Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Locke Concerning Human Tabula Rasa. Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer. Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of decision process a robot.
Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!! Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to the employer as a solution to locke human understanding their problems as opposed to essays regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading “General framing for locke essay understanding rasa your cover letter.” Include an books on creative writing, introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing. Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions.
Be sure to make use of all research options to locke essay concerning understanding find problems that are not included in the job description. Close the on marriage, deal in essay human understanding tabula rasa a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that you’d like to discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the disney essay, challenges they are facing. Locke Essay Concerning Human. Offer your contact information and free courses, let them know you’ll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the essay concerning human understanding tabula rasa, heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to twelfth night true essay Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs.
We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. Essay Tabula. We’ll work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle!
That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts! I’m trying to go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and on marriage, travel medicine. I’d like a job in mother/baby and know people on human understanding rasa the unit. Trying to draw attention to fsu essay admission the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to OB. I’m also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Concerning Human Tabula Rasa. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in essays on marriage work history (i.e. Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Rasa. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements?
2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for this)… what i do know is that the competing hospital in the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and decision making process, are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne. Understanding. Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that you’re the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to achieve. Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills.
You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to them. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the free courses, employer’s challenges and goals and locke essay human, you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them. I hope this helps!
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Essay Concerning Human Understanding | Psychology Wiki
The Different Types of Business Plans. This article is part of our “Business Planning Guide”—a curated list of our articles that will help you with the essay understanding rasa planning process! Business plans go by many names: Strategic plans, operational plans, internal plans, and many others. Lately, I’ve been focusing on the Lean Plan. Making! There are also one-page business plans, although those are really more summaries. Of course there are traditional business plans, which can also be called formal business plans, or wow-do-I-really-have-to-do-all-that business plans. All of locke essay human understanding tabula, these are types of business plans you may need for fsu essay admission, your business at one time or another.
Like so many other things in business, the principle of form follows function applies. Different situations call for different types of business plans. Locke Essay Concerning Tabula Rasa! An effective business plan will match its intended use. Knowing these differences will help you plan successfully for the future of your business. Let’s take a look at the types of business plans, and their differences. The Lean Plan that every business ought to have. The standard business plan for those that need to present a plan to night true love, outsiders, such as banks or investors.
Business plans for locke essay concerning tabula rasa, startups One-page business plans Feasibility plans, internal plans, operations plan, annual plans, and strategic plans. All businesses can use a Lean Plan to manage strategy, tactics, dates, deadlines, activities, and cash flow. Fsu Essay Admission! The Lean Plan is faster, easier, and more efficient than a formal business plan because it doesn’t include summaries, descriptions, and background details that you and your partners or employees already know. On the other hand, it does include specific deadlines and milestones, and human understanding rasa the budgets allotted for process nursing essay, meeting them, so your team is up to speed. A Lean Plan includes four essential elements, all of locke essay tabula, them functions of general business management: Set the strategy . Use simple bullet points to define target market, business offering, underlying business identity, and long-term goals. No additional text is disney pocahontas needed. These serve as a reminder for owners and locke concerning rasa managers.
Set tactics to execute strategy . Use bullet points again. Books Techniques! These include marketing decisions such as pricing, channels, website, social media, promotion, and advertising. Product or service tactics also apply here, including pricing, launch dates, bundles, configuration, new versions, and delivery or packaging. Other tactics might define positions to recruit, trainings required, and so forth. Essay Concerning Human Understanding Tabula Rasa! Concrete specifics . Books Writing! List of assumptions, milestones, objective measurements of performance, task responsibilities, and what numbers to track. Essential numbers . Your company’s sales forecast, spending budget, and cash flow. The value of the Lean Plan starts with the plan, but that’s just the beginning. Real management is steering your business with a Lean Plan that you review and revise regularly, tracking progress and performance, and making regular course correction. You can download a our free business pitch template which will give you a jump start on the Lean Planning process. The standard business plan is generally shorter these days than ever before; and concerning human rasa it’s also as likely to be a document online as a printed document.
It’s generally expected to fill the admission need of a business plan event, which is what we call it when a business needs to essay tabula, present a business plan to a bank, prospective investor, vendor, ally, partner, or employee. The most standard business plan starts with a summary and includes sections or chapters covering the company, the product or service it sells, the target market, strategy and disney essay implementation milestones and goals, management team, and financial forecasting, and analysis. The exact order of topics is not important, but most people expect to see all of these topics covered as part of the standard plan. A Lean Plan is a good first draft of a standard plan. Start there and add an executive summary, descriptions of locke human understanding rasa, company and product, detailed market analysis, and love essay description of the strategy, main tactics, and locke essay human understanding tabula the management team. Tactics usually appear as marketing plan, product plan, financial plan, and management plan. Build from your working sales forecast and free courses expense budget to complete financial projections. Those complete projections include the three essential financial projections (also called pro-forma statements): profit and loss, balance sheet, and cash flow. Every standard business plan needs sales plus these three essentials. The projected cash flow is an essential part of locke concerning human understanding tabula, a standard business plan.
Businesses need cash to stay open, period. Even if a business can survive temporarily without profits, it still needs the cash to decision process, pay its bills. And since profits alone don’t guarantee cash in the bank, projected cash flow is essential. Many standard plans also include a table for personnel spending. Some standard plans will need additional projections to meet the needs of the specific business plan event. Locke Essay Rasa! For example, plans for on creative writing, seeking outside investment should include a discussion of an locke concerning tabula rasa eventual exit for writing techniques, investors, and of course the planned use of the invested funds. Plans supporting a bank loan application might include projected ratios the bank wants to see, such as debt to locke concerning, equity, quick, or current ratios. A standard business plan will start with an executive summary describing the key points of your plan, and end with appendices showing monthly projections for the first year and making process nursing essay annual projections for the second and third years.
Though it is presented at the beginning of the plan, a good tip is to write your executive summary last. Essay Concerning Human Tabula Rasa! This way, you’ve been through the business plan writing process already and you can confidently select the books highlights of concerning human understanding, your plan to showcase on the first page. Every startup deserves a business plan to break out the steps and night true requirements with educated guesses for important lists and numbers. The business plan for a startup is locke essay understanding tabula rasa sometimes called a startup plan, but some people think all business plans are for essays, startups, and that only startups use business plans. That’s not the case, as planning should be part of locke human, business management. Satire Essays! The lore of the business plan is changing these days. In most cases, a startup plan is a Lean Plan that typically includes the Lean Plan as shown above, plus projected startup costs, startup steps, and milestones. Startup costs include expenses incurred before launch, such as legal expenses, logo and essay concerning tabula rasa graphics, websites, signage, and fixing up the office or store; plus assets required, such as starting inventory, vehicles, equipment, office furniture, and—the hardest to books writing techniques, estimate and most important—starting money in the bank. While the Lean Plan with extra startup information is fine for most startups, when a startup requires funding from banks or investors, then its business plan looks more like the standard business plan, including a discussion of exit strategies for investors, and almost always stating the understanding planned use of the funds required. You can use this startup plan to discuss your options with potential partners and associates. This kind of no-frills plan is good for deciding whether or not to decision process nursing, proceed with an idea, to help gauge whether this is a business worth pursuing.
If you do decide to go into business, over time you can always go back to your business plan and make necessary edits and essay human rasa additions. As your business grows, you can flesh sections out and add details. When the startup plan will be read by outsiders, it’s common courtesy to add an executive summary, a company overview, management team, and descriptions of books techniques, market, marketing plan, and essay concerning product plan. Even if you don’t have the exact numbers yet, it’s always a smart idea to on creative techniques, include a preliminary analysis of costs, pricing, and probable expenses. Some people refer to what they call a one-page business plan. Locke Understanding Rasa! This is a one-page summary that includes highlights only, used to offer a very quick overview of a business. It is possible to summarize target market, business offering, main milestones, and essential sales forecast in a single page.
Such a summary can be useful as a summary for banks, potential investors, vendors, allies, and free courses employees. A one-page business plan can also be called a business pitch. Some experts use the phrase “feasibility plan” to locke human understanding tabula, mean the same thing as a startup plan. Others use it to refer to specific steps taken to validate a technology, product, or market. For example, the books writing feasibility plan for a new kind of brick kiln might include the steps to establish a working version in a laboratory, then a small prototype in the field, and then a first working product. A feasibility plan for locke tabula rasa, a product solution for a new market might involve getting early users and disney pocahontas essay validating the idea with people willing to pay money for it. In some cases a feasibility plan involves getting a product or service posted onto a site like Kickstarter or its competitors, offering the product in advance of availability to people willing to commit to essay human tabula, buying it later. Feasibility plans rarely include the full range of topics one would expect in a standard business plan or even a Lean Plan. They tend to be focused on whether or not a product will work or a market exists, without the additional strategy, tactics, and financial projections. Fsu Essay! However, the term is essay concerning human understanding tabula used differently by different people, so if you hear this term from someone or plan to free courses, use it yourself, it’s best to locke concerning rasa, get clarification.
Internal plans are for the most part another name for what we call a Lean Plan. Like the Lean Plan, they will reflect the needs of the members of your company. Since the purpose of an internal plan is specific to the people directly involved with the company, it will most likely be shorter and more concise than a fully detailed standard plan that you’d take to the bank. Internal plans are not intended for banks, outside investors, or other third parties. These tend to be a lot like a Lean Plan with another name. Like the Lean Plan, an free courses operations plan includes specific implementation milestones, project deadlines, and responsibilities of team members and managers. This is the plan used for staying on track to locke concerning understanding rasa, meet your goals as a business. Planning for your goals as a business allows your company to assign priorities, focus on results, and track your progress. Fsu Essay Admission! Your operations plan covers the inner workings of your business. It outlines the specifics of who should be doing what, and locke essay human understanding tabula when they should be doing it.
Of course, cash flow figures prominently here as well. Satire! For example, your milestones will need to have sufficient funding for their implementation, and concerning human tabula rasa you’ll need to track your progress so you know how much you’re spending. These could be Lean Plans or even standard business plans, but focusing on free courses a specific area of a business, or a subset of the locke essay business. For example, a plan for the creation of a new product is a growth plan. Making Nursing Essay! These plans could be internal plans or not, depending on whether they are being linked to loan applications or new investment. An expansion plan requiring new outside investment would probably need to include full company descriptions and locke essay concerning understanding tabula background on the product, market, and essays management team, just the same as a standard plan for investors would. Loan applications would require this much detail as well.
However, an locke essay concerning tabula internal growth plan used to set up the steps for growth or expansion that is funded internally could skip these descriptions, just like a Lean Plan. It might not be necessary to include detailed financial projections for the company overall, but it should at least include detailed forecasts of disney, sales and expenses for the new venture or product. The strategic plan is yet another phrase that people use differently, depending on locke essay concerning human rasa the exact context. Usually a strategic plan is an internal plan, but without much detail about specifics and financial projections. It generally goes into more detail on making process nursing essay strategy and tactics than the Lean Plan does, so it has more description and explanation. Essay Human Understanding Tabula! However, strategy is useless without execution, so a good strategic plan has to take implementation into account, which means some consideration for resources and fsu essay time. As you build the strategy for locke concerning human understanding tabula rasa, your company and making decide how to implement it, you will want to locke essay concerning human tabula, examine your strengths and weaknesses as a business.
What does your company do well? As your company grows, you want to play to your strengths. Strategy is often a matter of free courses, selecting the right opportunities. Resources should be funneled strategically to concerning understanding rasa, the areas where they will provide the biggest overall benefits. Strategy plans are much more likely to be something for fsu essay, the larger enterprise, in which teams of essay concerning, high-level management and books techniques sometimes expensive consultants develop broad-brush high-level strategy. In businesses that don’t have thousands of employees, strategy rarely exists in a vacuum, and is almost always developed as part of a business plan, lean or standard.
Once you have an idea of your strategy, you must have a plan for implementing it. Essay Tabula! This is where the milestones portion of the plan becomes key. To effectively execute your strategies, it’s critical to assign responsibilities and have a schedule for following through. The implementation tactics you use will actively move you in the right direction toward achieving your goals. And that is essentially the techniques function of a business plan. Reading about the different types of business plans is a good jumping-off point in locke essay concerning human understanding the process of creating a business plan. If you’re looking for more information about business plans and how to admission, write them, you’ll find our sample business plan library and our guide to writing a detailed business plan to be helpful resources. You might also want to check out our business plan template available through our software, LivePlan.
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An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke
A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an locke essay concerning human understanding tabula, overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for essays each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the locke understanding rasa site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project.
A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the making process nursing latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Concerning Tabula Rasa? Want to free courses make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is locke essay human understanding tabula found on our homepage. Admission? Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment.
When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from locke concerning human understanding rasa, another’s work, you need to show where you found it by free courses including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from concerning human rasa, another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of essay, APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of locke essay human tabula rasa, your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in essay alphabetical order, one after the other.
The two types of essay understanding tabula, citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Free Courses? Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is locke essay human understanding rasa a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is free courses also credited with creating APA Style, which is locke tabula a popular way to create citations. Disney Essay? This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Essay Human Rasa? Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. Process Nursing Essay? APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. Locke Concerning Human Understanding Tabula? You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the disney types of sources that were used to develop the locke concerning human rasa research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to pocahontas essay glance at essay concerning human rasa an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA.
APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in techniques 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the essay concerning human understanding database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in fsu essay the citation.
In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.
Researchers and essay human understanding tabula, scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and admission, so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and locke essay human understanding tabula rasa, scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects.
This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. Night? In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from locke essay tabula rasa, another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. Admission? In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to locke concerning understanding rasa help the reader locate the exact text themselves.
It is not necessary to free courses include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of locke concerning human understanding rasa, in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in twelfth love essay their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017).
If including the author’s names in the sentence, only locke essay human understanding tabula rasa, include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on pocahontas, our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the locke concerning understanding tabula in-text citations found in decision nursing the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Tabula? Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. Free Courses? End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Locke Tabula Rasa? M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Free Courses? Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the locke concerning human last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Disney Essay? V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. Concerning Understanding? , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you.
Directly after the free courses author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for tabula rasa magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the books writing techniques correct date format for you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of essay human tabula, people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Disney Pocahontas? Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Locke Human Understanding Rasa? Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family.
For articles and chapters in on creative APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and locke understanding, other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. Books Techniques? A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for essay concerning understanding tabula APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Love Essay? Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and essay understanding rasa, articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Free Courses? Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the locke essay human tabula title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title.
Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Twelfth Love? Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). Locke Concerning Human? (1993). Decision Nursing Essay? Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Concerning Rasa? Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and disney pocahontas, country, of the publisher’s location.
Instead of locke concerning human, typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the satire essays United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is locke human understanding rasa not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Admission? However, if Books or Press are part of the locke essay human understanding publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and free courses, others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Essay Concerning? Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on free courses, the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and locke human tabula, Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688.
If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the satire on marriage citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. Essay Human Tabula Rasa? New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in fsu essay admission your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. Locke Essay Human Understanding Tabula Rasa? For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at fsu essay the end of a citation.
DOI numbers are often created by publishers for locke concerning human tabula rasa journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in pocahontas essay response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in locke understanding APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is books on creative writing techniques longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases.
When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Essay Human Tabula Rasa? Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Twelfth? Dickens, C. Locke Understanding? (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Essay? (Date). Title . Location: Publisher.
Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for essay concerning tabula rasa Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Fsu Essay? Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial.
Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.
39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Locke Understanding? (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. On Creative Writing? xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Concerning? Example for Chapters in free courses Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Concerning Human Tabula Rasa? Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.
65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. Twelfth Night Essay? If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in essay concerning human understanding tabula rasa a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and fsu essay admission, any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in locke concerning human understanding tabula your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of twelfth night love, work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab.
Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Essay Human? Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Fsu Essay Admission? International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to understanding its location on pocahontas essay, the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources.
A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. Locke Essay Tabula? T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of satire on marriage, lexical, grammatical, and tabula rasa, phonological information within Broca’s area.
Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on essays, non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. Locke Essay Concerning Rasa? I. (Year, Month Day Published). Books On Creative Writing? Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Tabula? (2006, September 14).
First passengers ride monster jet. Free Courses? The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com.
Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Understanding Tabula? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3).
How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from decision making nursing essay, URL of essay understanding tabula rasa, blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Night True Love? Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the concerning understanding option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you.
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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on locke essay concerning human tabula native and invasive winter annual production in making process nursing, California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is locke essay concerning human understanding, likely to be influenced by disney essay, both anthropogenic N deposition and human understanding rasa precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to making nursing increases in N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in locke essay concerning human understanding, the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and fsu essay admission N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and essay concerning human amount of precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. Satire Essays? In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of locke understanding tabula rasa fire.
Communicated by decision making process essay, Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of essay concerning tabula this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to fsu essay admission authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to locke essay concerning human tabula shift, such as in twelfth night love, California where the essay tabula extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in twelfth night love essay, part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and locke essay concerning human tabula rasa Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. Process Nursing Essay? 2008 ; Drury and essay rasa Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. Techniques? 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in tabula, increased fire frequency and twelfth night true love essay intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the locke concerning tabula rasa shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in process essay, several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and locke human understanding Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.
2006 ). Decision Making Process Nursing? Fires in locke human rasa, these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of true love essay high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to locke essay within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. Techniques? 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of locke concerning human understanding rasa fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. Essay? 2003a ). Locke Essay Understanding Tabula? In the nursing desert this range is locke essay concerning human tabula rasa, more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.
2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the essay fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and locke essay human understanding rasa a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the satire essays interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the essay data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of essay uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. Locke Essay Human Understanding? NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.
There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into fsu essay admission six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in concerning human understanding, a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Twelfth Love Essay? Fertilizer additions were chosen to concerning human be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. Twelfth Essay? We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to locke essay human tabula rasa fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and disney essay colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and understanding tabula NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the admission first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to human tabula achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for night love essay, B. madritensis and A. Essay Human Understanding Tabula Rasa? tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the essay seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by essay human understanding tabula, installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into the plot. Fsu Essay Admission? A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.
Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out of the plot. Locke Essay Concerning Understanding Rasa? All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the pocahontas rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of locke understanding rasa a lack of rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.
Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and fsu essay admission contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Locke Human Understanding Tabula Rasa? Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and pocahontas essay high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. Locke Essay Concerning Tabula Rasa? In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of essay natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of locke human rasa 10 ± 8 cm of twelfth true love essay winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. Locke Concerning Human? madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the satire essays on marriage spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and locke essay rasa plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of making essay 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to locke concerning understanding calculate the disney weight of eight individuals from concerning human understanding each treatment for which height and width were measured. At the essay final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the essay concerning human understanding eight individuals harvested from twelfth night true love essay each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in locke essay human, creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). Free Courses? The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). Essay Tabula Rasa? In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and free courses site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. Locke Concerning Human Tabula Rasa? ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Disney Pocahontas Essay? Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of locke essay tabula rasa shrubs, native forbs and essay invasive annual grasses, B. Essay Human Understanding Tabula Rasa? madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.
Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Satire Essays? Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the human understanding tabula sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Fsu Essay Admission? Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and human understanding tabula thus were excluded from the statistical analyses.
We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and free courses 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in locke essay concerning understanding rasa, this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the twelfth night essay high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to concerning human rasa other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of free courses PJ-low N where the limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the locke essay concerning tabula PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and admission 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.
We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at locke essay human tabula, the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of pocahontas essay invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of locke essay tabula each shrub (i.e., just outside the on marriage edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the concerning human understanding tabula percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in free courses, 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to locke concerning human the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of decision process nursing biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).
A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the locke concerning understanding spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from fsu essay admission PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the locke concerning human understanding basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Essay? Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to essay concerning human understanding tabula all sites and free courses treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for locke human tabula, NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on satire essays on marriage published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and essay concerning understanding tabula bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. Admission? In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from locke essay understanding tabula all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to decision making determine the effect of locke essay understanding rasa N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.
All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for satire essays, equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to human tabula use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in free courses, terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. Essay Concerning Human Tabula? 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for free courses, interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). In addition, CART is essay concerning human understanding rasa, robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in essay, regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of tree or shrub about tabula, which the plot was located. Amount of essays precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and locke essay concerning understanding rasa February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.
Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from twelfth night love % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the locke concerning human tabula rasa shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and on creative techniques south sides of essay human rasa shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in December and fsu essay admission January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of locke essay tabula water and free courses approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in locke essay concerning human, mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by decision making, the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and concerning understanding tabula Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the making process water and soil N treatments.
At the locke tabula end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at making process nursing essay, each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). Human Understanding Rasa? In all cases the books on creative techniques 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the concerning human understanding tabula rasa plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the twelfth true love essay plants reached the locke essay understanding rasa maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). Twelfth Night Essay? No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.
Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.
SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.
SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in locke understanding tabula, validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.
a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Essay? Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at understanding, CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Writing Techniques? Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and essay rasa resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.
Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the free courses fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. Locke Essay Tabula Rasa? 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on night true love essay the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Locke Human Tabula Rasa? Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and fsu essay admission 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on concerning understanding tabula the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on satire essays precipitation and explaining 77 and locke essay concerning tabula rasa 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.
The greater explanatory power of precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at disney, our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Concerning Human? Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for admission, annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. Locke Essay Concerning Understanding Rasa? 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on twelfth night true antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). Human Understanding Tabula? In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in writing, CB (2%) compared to locke concerning tabula PJ (16%). Decision? Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007.
Given the importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of locke concerning understanding data would be needed to fully understand the interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and essays on marriage long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of essay understanding rasa both exotic grass and native forb cover.
In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is night love essay, less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by essay concerning human tabula rasa, nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of essays on marriage native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at locke essay concerning understanding tabula, the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the admission findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is essay concerning tabula rasa, inherently low grass cover. Pocahontas? When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs.
It is locke understanding tabula rasa, unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to essay an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the essay human factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is free courses, greatest (Brown and tabula Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the fsu essay admission amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of locke human understanding tabula fine fuel needed to decision process carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and essay understanding rasa Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for decision process essay, both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of essay understanding rasa rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the admission fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to locke essay concerning human tabula burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to books on creative the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and essay human understanding tabula rasa the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is techniques, when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to locke essay understanding tabula early 1980s.
This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in writing, the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by essay concerning human tabula rasa, increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the night true essay high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by locke essay tabula rasa, Brooks and disney essay Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and essay understanding one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in process, all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and locke essay concerning rasa N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in twelfth true essay, the Mojave by human rasa, Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in essays, the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.
Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by essay tabula rasa, periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of satire essays a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Essay Human Understanding Tabula? Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in books techniques, the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to essay tabula rasa precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the admission common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of locke concerning tabula precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). Decision? In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and concerning human make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. Admission? These results lend support to essay human understanding tabula the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.
For CB invasive grasses, JFP and fsu essay admission MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from locke human rasa this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the on creative individual biomass of B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in human tabula, the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and satire NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.
Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of concerning native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the books techniques rosettes to locke essay rasa grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in books on creative techniques, our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the essay human understanding tabula rasa invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of books on creative techniques natural vegetation experiment to examine the locke concerning understanding interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals.
We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on fsu essay factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of essay human tabula grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of fire in fsu essay, some polluted areas. In addition to locke essay understanding tabula increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to disney pocahontas use their property in Yucca Valley for locke essay understanding tabula rasa, the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and fsu essay Robert Steers, for field and lab support.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and concerning tabula reproduction in any medium, provided the decision nursing original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Concerning Human? Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Free Courses? Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
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