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autoget resume BitchX is a VERY heavily modified ircII client. This is very important so pay attention. Paper! Due to recent problem with DNS poisoning and hacked website content pointing to false release site FTP servers for single BitchX, we have taken up new measures to insure that the source you are getting is in research note taking, fact legitimate. All files will be signed by the FTP site admin Rob Andrews. Essay Music! His public key block is available on and as It is also available to be downloaded from here. go to paper CVS can be obtained from

Primary CVS Repository. bash$ export Johns Essay! bash$ cvs login (password is note taking, blank, just hit enter) bash$ cvs co BitchX. bash$ export bash$ cvs login (password is blank, just hit enter) bash$ cvs co BitchX. bash$ cd BitchX/ ; cvs update. BitchX now works with almost all UNIX OS's and Windows 32-bit. Mac OS X (Jaguar) This portion of the FAQ assumes you are running a GNU compliant operating system. We'll post instruction below for those of you using other systems. ./configure (you can do ./configure --help to see more options) gmake (or make if so named as long as its the GNU version of make) All you really need is the BitchX binary. Parent! $ chmod +x /usr/local/bin/BitchX /usr/local/bin/scr-bx /usr/local/bin/wserv. BitchX.reasons Random kick messages, for /kick without a reason. BitchX.quit Random quit messages, for doing /quit without an argument. The help file for paper note BitchX (/bhelp). Parent! This is completely untrue.

Any 'backdoors' that have been found in earlier versions of BitchX are unintentional and note taking a part of the normal program development process. They are, of course, fixed as soon as they are discovered., Taking! FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions for those of paper note, you who don't know what it means. We tell everyone to read the FAQ before coming to IRC to ask questions for a reason. Book Symbols! While MD5 checksums are good for some purposes it has come to research paper my attention lately that with machines being compromised and persons being determined to alway attempt to trojan source code for malicious purposes, that we have to take the extra time to insure that sources being released are able to be validated by doesn come with age a much more secure source. Note! Key fingerprint = A722 0C2F 5A65 9357 DB71 09B9 4802 C4DE 42D1 F77C. BitchX offers built in support for public file offering called CDCC. As this is not what is normally used by mIRC ircII scripts, which for music lyrics the most part use XDCC, BitchX will recognize XDCC requests as CDCC requests. /CDCC command will give you a list of research paper taking, options, and /CDCC without an argument will give you a list of arguments/commands you can use. Lately, there have been a lot of requests for help with getting color and function keys working in XWindows in the channel. Wireless Networking Thesis! Before you ask for research taking help in the channel, please make sure that you have obtained the xterm variant called rxvt, and the font vga11x19. When you start rxvt, run it with the options -bg black -fg white -fn vga11x19.

If you do not have vga11x19, get it! Meanwhile, use the vga font as a substitute. If your function keys don't work, you may need to add this to. Single Parent Essay! /bind meta3-2 CHANNEL_CHOPS. /bind meta3-3 CHANNEL_NONOPS. /bind meta3-4 CDCC_PLIST. /bind meta3-5 DCC_PLIST. /bind meta3-6 DCC_STATS. BitchX has a built-in toggle menu to turn on research and off commonly used features of the client. type the following commands. /window set * status_format3 %C %+ %- BitchX has the ability to create windows which you can use for different purposes. /window new hide (create a new hidden window) /window kill (gets rid of current window) /window double [on|off] (turns on or off double status bar) /window channel [#channel] (Join #channel in current window) /window bind [#channel] (Binds #channel to current window) /window unbind [#channel] (Unbinds #channel from current window) /window level [level] (Only show LEVEL messages in window) /window move [number] (Move current window to book symbols window number [number]) /window size [lines] (Sets current window to # lines) /window swap [window] (Swap to window number [window]) /window next (Move to the next window) /window previous (Move to the previous window) /window balance (Balances the displayed windows) /window fixed [on|off] (Turns window sizing options on/off) /window hide_others (Hides all windows except the current one) /window log [on|off] (Turns on/off logging for research taking current window) /window server [servername] (Connect to a new server in current window) /window discon (Disconnect window from a server) /window show [num] (Makes window [num] visible, also a way to swap back to paper the top window of research taking, a splitted window) /window split [on|off] (Turn on/off the thrid status line on top of essay with, screen (topic)) /window show_all (Makes all hidden windows visible) /window grow [#] (Grow a split window by # of lines) /window shrink [#] (Shrink a split window by # of lines) /window back (Will swap you back one window, or to the lower window in a split window screen) WALLS (IRCop /wallop messages) SNOTES (Server Notices) USERLOG1,2,3,4 or 5 (. ) KILL (Kill messages) KICKUSER (Kick messages) TOPIC (Topic messages) PUBLIC (Public channel messages) WALLOPS (Channel WALLOP messages) ACTIONS (/me type actions) BEEP (Any text with ^G BEEP character) MODEUSER (User mode changes) MODECHAN (Channel mode changes) PARTS (Channel parts) JOIN (Channel joins) HELP (Any type of help messages) MSGS (/msg type messages) DCC (DCC messages) TCL (Messages from the TCL subsystem) INVITES (Invitations to other channels) NOTIFY (Notify messages, ie: user is online, etc) NOTICES (/notice type messages) OPNOTES (IRCop Notifications) CTCP (CTCP messages, ie: ping, version, etc) SEND_MSG (Sent /msg's to other users) KICK (Channel kicks) DEBUG (Internal Debug messages, when /set debug 1) ^W- - Shrinks current window 1 line. Research Paper Note! ^W+ - Grows current window 1 line.

^Wm - Moves current window down 1 line. ^Wl - Lists current windows. ^Wk - Kills current window. ^Wh - Hides current window. ^Wb - Balances window sizes. Single Parent! ^Wn - Swaps to next window. ^Wp - Swaps to paper note taking previous window. /# - Shows window number (1-4) The length of nickname is controlled by wireless a number of research note taking, FSET variables: /FSET NAMES_BOTCOLOR %K[%C$0%G$[15]1%K] /FSET NAMES_OPCOLOR %K[%C$0%n%B$[15]1%K] /FSET NAMES_VOICECOLOR %K[%Mv%B$[15]1%K] /FSET NAMES_SHITCOLOR %K[%C$0%n%R$[15]1%K] /FSET NAMES_FRIENDCOLOR %K[%C$0%Y$[15]1%K] /FSET NAMES_NICKCOLOR %K[%B $[15]1%K] Submitted by BinGOs ( on essay on wisdom come age Wed Sep 24 1:59:30 MDT 2003. Submission approved by tilt on Wed Oct 1 4:00:40 MDT 2003. Yes! BitchX supports TCL scripts. Paper! To get BitchX for Windows, you need to go to wireless networking thesis and look for the Precompiled i386 Win 95/98/NT version. Research Paper Note Taking! Alternativley you could try The latest version of single essay, BitchX for Windows is research, 1.0c11 unless you are running Cygwin. The variables that you can set under Windows are pretty the same as those you set under Unix. Essay Doesn Come! IRCNICK - Your nickname.

As usual, overridden by a commandline argument. IRCUSER - Your username. IRC_HOST, IRCHOST - Virtual hostname. See section 6 for research note details. IRCNAME - Real name or GECOS field. IRCSERVER - Server(s) separated by spaces to use, in research paper note taking, the format[:password] IRCPORT - Default port to look for an IRC server on.

The standard (and BitchX's default) is port 6667. IRCUMODE - Default usermode. IRCRC - Where to look for .ircrc. By popular demand, here is an example batch file for windows, it sets some various env variables and then starts BitchX, lines preceded with REM are comments: SET IRCNAME=BitchX for Windows User. Research Paper! REM one can't be connected to, then the next one is used, and so on. REM SET REM -c #BitchX (joins #BitchX on startup) REM -l bx-rc (load bx-rc on startup) BitchX -c #BitchX -l bx-rc. /.bitchxrc in Windows? NO! The Windows equivilant to UNIX's /.bitchxrc is bx-rc placed in the $HOME directory.

You can still use the same commands in here though. There is an example .bitchxrc by power called example-.bitchxrc located in the 'doc' directory in your BitchX folder. /bx-conf directory there is book symbols, a file called BitchX.quit with a. huge list of quit messages, I think they were created by BlackJac. Delete all these and put a few or just one of paper taking, your own in. Or, if you don't have that, go into BitchX and type /set default_reason or just create the BitchX.quit file. NOTE: There is book symbols, also a file called BitchX.kck this contains random kick messages.

In BitchX type /load /path/to/script if the script is in taking, your $HOME. directory then just type /load. /scriptname.bx or if you want the. script to load everytime you start BitchX then add this to your .bitchxrc. On Wisdom Doesn With Age! PMBitchX is an taking, OS/2 Graphical User Interface (GUI) port of the original. BitchX by panasync. Many of the GUI enhancements are based on the OS/2. client OpenChat. The current features are: multiwindows, resizeable. Johns Essay! windows, font's configurable, scriptable pulldown menus, full BitchX. script compatibility, floatable nicklist window, properties notebook, file font and popup dialogs, and multimedia enhancements (sound). or These are set by research environment variables, the four most important variables. are IRCNICK, IRCNAME, USER and essay HOME. If you are using BETA 3 and paper taking up the. installation program should have set these for single parent essay you. Otherwise you will. Research Paper Note! have to book symbols put these variables in your CONFIG.SYS, or edit the taking, PMBITCHX.CMD. file and book symbols use that to start your IRC session.

At the input prompt type /loaddll nicklist, and paper note then type /nl to activate. the nicklist window. In the current version of the nicklist plugin, run. /nl only once, because the second time you run /nl it should close the. Parent! window, but it does not do it correctly so you won't be able to get the. At the input prompt type /load bxmenu.bx, this will load the default. PMBitchX script adding all the functionality most users desire. Go to research paper note taking the HOME directory pointed to by the HOME environment variable, and. create a file called bx-rc, this is the lyrics, equivalent to .bitchxrc in UNIX. Research Taking! In that file enter the commands to load the dll's and admission essay scripts you desire. Due to filename restrictions on FAT systems the BitchX filenames have. been shortened for research note OS/2 and Windows 9x/NT. gtkBitchX is research paper note taking, a port of PMBitchX to research note X/Windows using the gtk (Gimp Toolkit) windowing library. It includes all the thesis, features of PMBitchX, except in a UNIX environment. To compile gtkBitchX from research paper note taking, scratch you will need the following: GTK 1.2.0, ZVT from gnome-libs 1.0.12, imlib 1.9.4 and pthreads. glibc 2.1 or. higher is recommended if on argumentative music lyrics Linux. The GUI features are scripted.

There is a file called menu.bx in the doc. directory in the package ( /BitchX/doc). To get the research note, menus copy menu.bx. into your home directory and type /load. /menu.bx in on wisdom, BitchX. Research Paper! Install a vga compatible font such as vga.pcf and then do this: /set DEFAULT_FONT vga | /save | /window font vga. /EVAL XECHO -r $chr(27)(U. When menu.bx is loaded there are paste options on the BitchX pulldown. Essay Doesn Come With Age! menu and also on the popup menu. Or you use the command /pmpaste. There are doc's in the BitchX-docs project ( will give you the info needed, to view them in research note, gtkBitchX type /ehelp. You are probably loading menu.bx in your .bitchxrc.

Since gtkBitchX (and. menu.bx) make use of key bindings that don't exist in console BitchX. problems can occur. Remove the ^load menu.bx from your .bitchxrc when. using console BitchX. In most cases people will tell you to use screen when possible. We would agree that screen would be more suited for most users. By default doing /list returns an essay with, error message due to research taking most networks having a large number of channels.

This command will turn off the argumentative essay music, ability to see colors that are not standard. Unless you are root, you won't have to worry about bxglobal. Paper Note Taking! BitchX runs fine without it. What is it? Nothing more than a global .bitchxrc. /.ircrc, and how are they different? .bitchxrc and .ircrc are both startup files written in the scripting language. They are both loaded up by johns BitchX automatically. What are the differences? /.ircrc is loaded by research note taking all ircII-based clients, and you should only put things compatible with basic ircII scripting in it. /.bitchxrc is loaded only by BitchX, and you should put all BitchX-specific scripting in here. Essay On Wisdom Come With Age! / means your home directory. You cannot place this file in another location an expect it to work unless you issue the -l or -L command line argument. For more info about the command line options use the -h switch to show you a list of research, options you can pass to BitchX when starting it up. /.ircrc may cause you problems. %P and %M - bold purple/magenta. %p and book symbols %m - and purple/magenta.

To script, you should have at taking least some experience using the client so you know how things SHOULD react, etc, etc. There is parent essay, no designated guide to scripting, just look at the scripts that come with the BitchX source, or ircII scripts that you already have/can get. (/eval echo $func(args) and /command). If it's definitely an undocumented feature, e.g. Research Note! you can't find out what its' use is, ask in the channel, someone may be able to argumentative lyrics help. This depends on which unix shell you run. Taking! For sh based shells, you would simply use: IRCSERVERS server:port server2:port2 server3:port3 IRCNAME hi, I'm no longer too lame to argumentative music read BitchX.doc!

IRC_HOST virtual hostname here (see sec. 3.7 for details) Spoofing: NO. BitchX is taking, not, and never has been, a spoofer. On the right-hand side, you see: [U:a:S:b:h], this gives you a quick look at some of the options that are turned ON and essay music lyrics off in BitchX. An uppercase letter means the option is on, while a lowercase letter means the option is off. U=userlist, a=autoop S=shitlist b=bitch h=hacking. [O/35 N/128 I/4 V/0 F/0], this gives you a quick overview of the status of the people in research taking, the channel. O = number of ops in the channel. N = number of single essay, non-ops in the channel. I = number of IRCOps in the channel. V = number of voiced users in the channel.

F = number of people on research note your friend's list in the channel. /adduser nick #channel friend,i_ops. Argumentative Music! OPS,I_OPS would instantly give OPS to note a user. VOICE,I_OPS would instantly give VOICE to a user (NOT OPS) /adduser nick #channel1,#channel2,#etc friend,i_ops. Book Symbols! BOT - Creates a bot entry in userlist(/addbot replacement) DCC - Allows a users dcc to auto-get regardless of whether /set dcc_autoget is Off or On. Note! DEOP - Deops offender who deops a protected user. Research Paper Note Taking! FLOOD - AllowS Flood checking to paper note be turned off on a user.

INVITE - Allows a user to invite themself to a channel your in on wisdom doesn come, via CTCP. I_OPS - Allows a user to research be instantly opped upon joining a channel they are protected in (NOT RECOMMENDED) KICK - Kicks offender who bans/kicks protected user. OPS - Allows a user to be opped via CTCP/deleyed ops. Thesis! PBAN - When a user is banned from a channel they are protected on, they are automatically un-banned. PINVITE - When a user is research paper note taking, kicked from a channel they are protected on, they are automatically re-invited back. REOP - When a user is deopped from a channel they are protected on, they are automatically re-opped.

UNBAN - Allows a user to remotely unban his/herself via CTCP. VOICE - Auto-voice on join. FRIEND - Combination of: VOICE,OPS,UNBAN,INVITE. MASTER - Combination of: VOICE,OPS,BAN,UNBAN,INVITE,DCC,FLOOD. OWNER - Combination of: MASTER,KILL,DIE,BOT. 1 - Deop user at all times.

2 - Kick user when they join the channel. 3 - Ban/Kick user when they join the essay, channel. 4 - Ban user at taking all times. 5 - Perm ignore ALL from user. To remove users on your /userlist type /unuser nick|nick!ident@host #channel. /fset format_version Hi, this is my new version reply. /set timestamp on. Yes, you can.

Before you compile BitchX, modify the Makefile and turn on paper note the CDROM features. /cdplay /cdpause /cdstop /cdvol /cdlist /cdeject. All this means is that you need to install the ncurses package from Yes. For certain it is paper taking, supported under Linux and FreeBSD. In FreeBSD you can use the ports version of BitchX and specify that you wish to use IPV6 by doing 'cd /usr/ports/irc/bitchx/ make WITH_IPV6=yes make install clean' and it will build and install BitchX with IPV6 support. In your home directory create a file called .ircservers. /set kick_ops off will protect ops from not being kicked when they do annoying things that my BitchX kick. /set annoy_kick on will kick on CAPS and mirc colors on channel except those protected. Submitted by Petre Daniel dnai@Undernet#BitchX ( on Sat Dec 21 10:22:57 EST 2002. Book Symbols! Submission approved by tilt on Sat Dec 21 13:13:19 EST 2002. Research Paper! - To delete an networking thesis, active timer, type /timer -del refnum - To make a timer loop indefinately, type /timer -rep -1 delay command To make a timer to note taking /msg nick hi every 10 seconds, you would: /timer -rep -1 10 /msg nick hi. get the parent essay, RefNum of the timer you want to delete, and use /timer -del # /set userlist on. /cset userlist on. /adduser [optionally add '-ppp' for paper note dynamic IPs] OPS,I_OPS (cannot have a password set) To autoget dcc sends, type /toggle dcc_autoget. To set your DCC download path, type /set dcc_dldir /path/to/dir. name as a file that is already in research paper note, your DCC_DLDIR path, type /set dcc_autorename on. you can type /set dcc_max_autoget_size 2000000 - This will set your max. autoget filesize to 2MB. you can /set dcc_get_limit # - Where # is the max you want to have.

Set. this to 0 to have unlimited (the default) using /set dcc_force_port port_num - Where port_num is the port you. want to use for research note taking DCC SENDs and research paper note taking DCC GETs. Research Note Taking! using /set dcc_use_gateway_addr YES. will give you a list of doesn with age, all variables beginning with dcc* that you. Research Note! are able to set. Submitted by BlackJac on Mon Apr 7 17:18:33 EDT 2003. Submitted by By-Tor (you@better.accept.this.powuhbitch) on Fri Apr 11 11:15:14 EDT 2003. Thesis! Submission approved by power on Fri Apr 11 16:59:17 EDT 2003. To send an action in private message, type the research, following:

/describe nick text. /describe dovee laughs. To start a query type: when you talk in message to more then one person it can get confusing. Research! If you send a message to the wrong person the first time, you can easily send the same message to the right person. Research Paper! /msg dove Hey how you doing?! Alot of people don't like the bold colon which is standard for BitchX nick completion. To change it, type simply: I talk to someone who just types fast. how do I stop my client from book symbols, auto-ignoring them? Then turn off your auto-ignore feature. /set flood_prot off. Research Taking! using this small tweak in your .bitchxrc file: /msg login USERNAME PASSWORD. then you can change your mode to on Undernet or another thing on other networks. Submitted by Petre Daniel ( on Tue May 13 21:05:46 EDT 2003. Submission approved by power on networking thesis Sun May 25 22:47:32 EDT 2003. /set TIMESTAMP_STRING [%H:%M] to start a dcc chat with someone type. /dcc chat nickname. Research Paper Taking! /dcc close chat nick (/dcc close TYPE nick) /dcc close #number (make sure you have the pound sign) Connect to an irc server using SSL by typing: /server -ssl server. aside from looking in /bhelp to johns find out your answer.

You will already have noticed that when you press the RETURN key, the message you have typed is sent to the current channel, or the command you have typed is note taking, obeyed. Essay On Wisdom Come With Age! This is because the taking, RETURN key is bound to the internal BitchX function SEND_LINE. the next time you start bitchx your bind will work. AUTOREPLY types the nick of the last person to msg you. AUTOREPLY_BACK (commented out; a no-op) BACKSPACE delete left one charater in the input buffer. BACKWARD_CHARACTER move left one charater in the input buffer. BACKWARD_HISTORY replace the networking, input buffer with the note, previous string from your input history. Research Paper! BACKWARD_WORD move left to a space. Research Note! BEGINNING_OF_LINE move left to the start of the book symbols, line. BLINK insert the research note, blink attribute (control-F) BOLD insert BOLD (control-b) to toggle bold on/off. CDCC_PLIST display the with age, offerlist to current channel. CHANNEL_CHOPS shows ops on the current channel (see USER)

CHANNEL_NONOPS shows non-ops on the current channel (see USER) CHANGE_TO_SPLIT switch server to one on the other side of a netsplit. CHELP print the help index. CLEAR_SCREEN clear the current window. COMMAND_COMPLETION attempts to complete the current command based on what you've typed so far, so /cle might expand to research paper /CLEAR for example. CPU_SAVER who knows? DCC_PLIST show active DCC transfer status.

DCC_STATS show accumulated DCC transfer stats. DELETE_CHARACTER delete under the cursor. DELETE_NEXT_WORD delete word forward. DELETE_PREVIOUS_WORD delete word backward. DELETE_TO_PREVIOUS_SPACE delete bigword backward.

END_OF_LINE move to the end of input line. ENTER_DIGRAPH enter an 8-bit character I think. ERASE_LINE clear the whole input line. ERASE_TO_BEG_OF_LINE delete to book symbols the start of the research taking, line. ERASE_TO_END_OF_LINE delete to the end of the line.

FORWARD_CHARACTER move forward one character. FORWARD_HISTORY replace the input line with the next item from your history. FORWARD_WORD move forward one word. HIGHLIGHT_OFF insert the highlight off character (control-o) tht cancels all highlight modes (bold, underline, flash) IGNORE_NICK inserts a command /ig , where is the last nick to send you a message. Press return if you want to keep the command, or delete it as if you had typed it by mistake.

JOIN_LAST_INVITE join the channel to which you were most revently /INVITEd. NEW_BEGINNING_OF_LINE same as beginning_of_line but also sets the internal extended_handled variable. Networking! NEW_SCROLL_BACKWARD scroll the window half a screen backwards. NEW_SCROLL_END scroll to the end (the most recent part) of the paper, current window. NEW_SCROLL_FORWARD scroll half a page down towards the end of the current window. NEXT_WINDOW move to the next window. NICK_COMPLETION the nick completion character. NOTHING key bound to this are silently ignored. PARSE_COMMAND not sure what this does. PREVIOUS_WINDOW cycle through windows.

QUIT_IRC leave BitchX without any prompt or warning. QUOTE_CHARACTER the next character you type is note, inserted literally. REFRESH_INPUTLINE redraw the input buffer. Research Paper Note! REFRESH_SCREEN refresh the networking thesis, entire screen. REVERSE insert the reverse video command character (contreol-v) SCROLL_BACKWARD scroll the paper taking, window half a screen backwards. SCROLL_END scroll to the ens of the window SCROLL_FORWARD scroll forwards half a screen in wireless, the current window. Research Note! SCROLL_START scroll to the start of the scrollback buffer in the current window. Networking! SELF_INSERT insert the key typed. SEND_LINE return: do the line! SHOVE_TO_HISTORY save the current line in the history. STOP_IRC suspend BitchX (use fg to get it back; STOP_IRC is not always available.

SWAP_LAST_WINDOW swap the current window with the last hidden one in the list. SWAP_NEXT_WINDOW swap the current window with the next hidden one. SWAP_PREVIOUS_WINDOW swap the current window with the next hidden one. Note! SWITCH_CHANNELS talk to another channel in the same window. TAB_MSG inserts /msg nick at the start of the buffer. TOGGLE_CLOAK ctcp cloaking on or off; this will give a message like CTCP Cloaking is now [Off] when you press the key (Delete on the arrowpad by default). Book Symbols! With CTCP cloacking on, people don't get replies from paper, you for ctcp requests like ping, version and finger. TOGGLE_INSERT_MODE witch between insert and overtype mode. TOGGLE_STOP_SCREEN stop scrolling I think TRANSPOSE_CHARACTERS swap the character under the cursor with the one to its left.

TYPE_TEXT in a script, this makes text appear in the input buffer. Book Symbols! In input, it's already there, so you don't see anything. UNCLEAR_TEXT undoes the paper note, effect of clear! UNDERLINE inserts control-_, the underline start/stop character. UNSTOP_ALL_WINDOWS resume scrolling everywehre. WHOLEFT show who was disconnected by a netsplit in single parent essay, all your current channels. WINDOW_BALANCE make the split screen windows be equally sized. Paper Note! WINDOW_GROW_ONE make the current window larger. WINDOW_HELP show the window help index.

WINDOW_HIDE hide the current window; text will continue to accumulate in the hidden window with no indication that it's there. WINDOW_KILL close (kill) the current window; does not part any channels. WINDOW_LIST list your windows. WINDOW_MOVE swap this window with some other one. WINDOW_SHRINK_ONE make the current window smaller. YANK_FROM_CUTBUFFER insert the last text you deleted. /REL Usage: /rel? -command # nick- command is one of the following: -kick, -wall, -notice, -msg, -wallop, -topic, -kill, -kboot, -ansi and -list- If the list supports more than one saved message then # can be from 0-9- nick can be a nick or a channel. If left off, then current channel isassumed. /RELC Usage: /relc- Displays the last CTCP command issued. /RELCR Usage: /relcr- Displays the last CTCP reply message received. Single! /RELCRT Usage: /relcrt- Changes the topic to the last CTCP reply message. /RELCT Usage: /relct- Changes the topic to the last CTCP command issued. /RELD Usage: /reld- Displays the last DCC msg recieved. /RELDT Usage: /reldt- Sets the topic to the last DCC message recieved. /RELI Usage: /reli- Shows the last invite message received. /RELIT Usage: /relit- Changes the topic to research paper the last invite message received. /RELM Usage: /relm - Redirects last received message to If invoked with -l, the last 10 messages received are listed-l # will display message number # /RELMT Usage: /relmt - Changes the topic to the last received message. /RELN Usage: /reln - Redirects last received notice to If invoked with -l, the last 10 messages received are listed-l # will display message number # /RELNT Usage: /relnt- Changes the topic to the last notice received. /RELS Usage: /rels - Redirects last received server notice to If invoked with -l, the last 10 messages received are listed-l # will display message number # /RELSM Usage: /relsm - Redirects last sent message to. /RELSMT Usage: /relsmt- Changes the topic to the last message issued by you. /RELSN Usage: /relsn - Redirects last sent notice to. /RELSNT Usage: /relsnt- Changes the topic to the last notice issued by you. Admission Essay! /RELST Usage: /relst- Displays the last topic issued by you. Research Paper! /RELSTT Usage: /relstt- Changes the topic to the last topic issued by you. Essay! /RELSW Usage: /relsw- Sorry, no help is research paper note, available for this command yet. /RELSWT Usage: /relswt- Sorry, no help is single essay, available for this command yet. /RELT Usage: /relt- Displays the research paper taking, current topic in the current channel. Research! /RELW Usage: /relw- Displays the taking, last wallop message received. /RELWT Usage: /relwt- Changes the topic to the last wallop message received. Not that we think you are stupid and that you couldn't have just typed at your prompt: The [nickname] can be at most 15 characters long.

The [server list] is a whitespace separate list of note taking, server name. Research Paper Note! The [switches] may be any or all of the following. -H uses the note taking, virtual hostname if possible. -N do not auto-connect to the first server. -A do not display the startup ansi. -c joins on startup. don't forget to escape the # using. -b load .bitchxrc or .ircrc after connecting to a server. default server connection port (usually 6667) -f your terminal uses flow controls (^S/^Q), so BitchX shouldn't. -F your terminal doesn't use flow control (default) -d runs BitchX in dumb terminal mode. -q does not load. -r file load file as list of research note taking, servers. -n nickname nickname to use. -a adds default servers and command line servers to server list. -x runs BitchX in debug mode. -Z use NAT address when doing dcc. -P toggle check pid.nickname for essay doesn come running program. -v tells you about the client's version. -i ignores the autojoin list entries. -l loads in place of research note, your .ircrc. Hopkins Essay! -L loads in place of your .ircrc and paper expands $ expandos. -B force BitchX to fork and return you to shell. On Wisdom Doesn Age! pid check on. BitchX gives you the option of adding a file to your client configuration in the HOME directory. Create a file called .bitchxrc. /msg nickname message. Set the variable SHOW_CHANNEL_NAMES to off with this command: Submitted by Scott ( on paper note Wed Aug 27 12:40:40 EDT 2003. Submission approved by note taking dovee on Mon Sep 8 16:47:15 EDT 2003.

You can use /paste. if you want to paste more rows use /paste 1-5. 1 is first row you choose last. Submitted by research freeman ( on parent Mon Aug 25 18:22:48 EDT 2003. Submission approved by dovee on Mon Sep 8 16:47:27 EDT 2003. Paper Note! Question: How can I disable the clock at the status bar ? Thanks for asking Leslie, but ask your questions in next time :) identd is an application BitchX uses (like screen) but it is not supported by BitchX. I see this happening. hey mhackah. you ALMOST got your nick back. #8729;#8729; Connection closed from Unknown error: 0. #8729;#8729; Use /Server to paper taking connect to research paper note taking a server. Hopkins Admission Essay! #8729;#8729; Connecting to port 6667 of server [refnum 1] someone here ever setup pppd for research paper note dialin? and on wisdom doesn age made it work. Assuming that you typed /save after you /ajoin'd a channel. To fix this problem: If Quakenet is showing the auth incorrectly when you /whois. Submitted by Will ( on Sun Oct 5 9:33:26 MDT 2003. Paper! Submission approved by sin on Wed Oct 8 10:30:07 MDT 2003.

When setting up your SecureCRT client to connect to a remote system which you plan to use BitchX to chat on IRC you might wish to take notice of the following. Erm.. sort of? We will be using a DCC Chat session to accomplish this. /do quote privmsg $N :$chr(1)DCC CHAT CHAT $iplong( 9001 $chr(1) After you have made any type of change using /set, /cset, /toggle, etc. always remember to book symbols use '/save' to save all settings so they will be the same next type you reload the client. Yes, BitchX 1.0c18 or greater should compile just fine on the initial release of OS X (10.0.1), tho a replacement teminal might be required, as the one that ships with OS X lacks certain flow control features that BitchX uses, GLterm is a great replacement for (thanks for telling me about it paul). If you find and issues with BitchX on research taking OS X, please e-mail me,, so i can address them, and hopefully fix them before the book symbols, next release. Yes. BitchX includes multi-server support. /.ircservers file into server groups. Research Note! /set server_groups on. Since there are still some networks out essay on wisdom come age, there that do not allow nickname registration there was a handy builtin called orignick added to BitchX. Currently the AIM plugin for BitchX compiles and paper loads up just fine.

However due to the fact that AIM changes how their protocol works so often there hasn't been an update to the plugin for some time which means that it currently does not work. By default, only actions, public chatter and hopkins messages from others are timestamped. This is controlled by the corresponding display formats - a %@ in a display format will be replaced with a timestamp when timestamps are turned on. . JOIN $G %C$1 %K[%c$2%K]%n has joined $3. /.bitchxrc startup script. In the research taking, case that you find your irc session with a bunch of unreadable characters there are a couple ways to reset this without having to kill the client or /quit blindly. in your shell type reset. Thesis! If the characters are still messed up logout then back in. In large channels (1000+ users) sometimes the paper taking, JOIN/PARTS/QUITS messages turns to be more SPAM than anything useful. Submitted by icarus ( on Tue Feb 17 5:57:01 MST 2004. Submission approved by ice-man on Sat Feb 28 16:26:02 MST 2004. First make sure you're using the book symbols, latest version of BitchX, currently that is BitchX 1.20cvs. Then make sure you're able control the firewall/gateway to forward a port to research paper note your computer. /set DCC_USE_GATEWAY_ADDR ON. /set DCC_FORCE_PORT num After a long time of being down has returned with a whole new group of networking thesis, scripts and a user submission system which allows script creators a chance to post their scripts and have control over releases and updates of their own scripts from now on.

Check that site often as it is constantly changing and paper taking being added onto. If you want to get some help with minor scripting problems you run into. We suggest you type. any scripters are around to answer your questions. In the .bitchxrc file add the following lines:- ^msg AUTH. is your password :) Submitted by BinGOs ( on networking thesis Wed Aug 20 10:32:56 EDT 2003. Paper Taking! Submission approved by dovee on Mon Sep 8 16:47:48 EDT 2003. Book Symbols! Yes there is a dcc fserv script for BitchX available now. If there is nothing in this faq that pertains to you. Please let us know about it!

This portion of the FAQ will contain information known regarding bugs in the BitchX IRC client and how to paper note taking correct or work around a known problem until an official patch or upgrade to the code is made in the CVS tree. This issue has been resolved in the CVS version of BitchX-1.0c20 as of the beginning of April 2003. The code optimiser in gcc versions 3.2 and 3.2.1 produces buggy code in some circumstances - this causes BitchX compiled with these versions of gcc (which are included in recent versions of Mandrake and Red Hat) to crash when script files formatted in a certain way are loaded. This also extends to the. /.bitchxrc startup script. Channel-logging (/cset log on) is book symbols, currently sufficiently broken to research paper note taking be unuseable.

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Trump Pick Monica Crowley Plagiarized Parts of Her Ph.D. Dissertation. By ALEX CATON and GRACE WATKINS. January 09, 2017. Monica Crowley, President-Elect Donald J. Research! Trump’s pick for a top National Security Council job, plagiarized numerous passages in research her Ph.D. dissertation, Politico Magazine has found. An examination of the dissertation and the sources it cites identified more than a dozen sections of research paper note text that have been lifted, with little to no changes, from other scholarly works without proper attribution. Book Symbols! In some instances, Crowley footnoted her source but did not identify with quotation marks the text she was copying directly. In other instances, she copied text or heavily paraphrased with no attribution at all. Story Continued Below. This finding comes on the heels of CNN’s Saturday report that Crowley, the conservative author and commentator whom Trump tapped as senior director of strategic communications for the National Security Council, plagiarized more than 50 passages in her 2012 book What the (Bleep) Just Happened , copying directly from conservative columns, news articles, Wikipedia and in one case a podiatrist’s website. Despite the paper note taking news, the Trump team continues to support the book symbols appointment. “Any attempt to discredit Monica is nothing more than a politically motivated attack that seeks to distract from the real issues facing this country,” a transition spokesperson told CNN.

The transition team did not reply to research note taking requests for comment for this story. Crowley submitted her dissertation, titled “Clearer Than Truth: Determining and Preserving Grand Strategy: The Evolution of essay music American Policy Toward the People’s Republic of China Under Truman and Nixon,” in 2000 in research note taking partial completion of her Ph.D. in international relations at New York’s Columbia University. Today, the book symbols thesis is kept on microfilm at the University of research paper Michigan and accessible via ProQuest, an academic database. By checking passages in argumentative essay music lyrics the document against the sources Crowley cites, focusing on paragraphs that come before and after footnotes of key sources in her bibliography, we found numerous structural and syntactic similarities. She lifted passages from her footnoted texts, occasionally making slight wording changes but rarely using quotation marks. Sometimes she didn’t footnote at research note, all. Parts of book symbols Crowley's dissertation appear to violate Columbia's definition of taking Unintentional Plagiarism for essay lyrics failure to 'quote' or block quote author's exact words, even if documented or failure to paraphrase in your own words, even if documented.

In other cases, her writing appears to research paper note taking violate types I and book symbols II of research paper taking Columbia's definition of Intentional Plagiarism, which are, respectively, direct copy and essay paste and small modification by word switch, without quotation or reference to the source. The examples Politico Magazine found came primarily from six books and articles on U.S. foreign policy, particularly from paper note taking Yale historian John Lewis Gaddis’ 1982 book Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War and Princeton World Politics professor Thomas Christensen’s 1996 book Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 . Both Gaddis and Christensen declined to book symbols comment. Crowley, a former researcher for Richard Nixon while he was writing his last two books, conducted original interviews for the dissertation with the former president and diplomats Henry Kissinger and Winston Lord. The dedication reads, “For Harry Truman, Richard Nixon, Dean Acheson, and Henry Kissinger: Strategic Thinkers and Actors.” Her thesis adviser, Professor of War and Peace Studies Richard K. Betts, declined to comment, as did Columbia University, which has previously rescinded at least one Ph.D. for plagiarism.

Crowley was previously accused of plagiarism in 1999 when a reader in California noticed similarities between a Wall Street Journal column she wrote and a 1988 Paul Johnson piece in Commentary . After the discovery, the Journal published an editor’s note in that week’s Friday edition that read, “Had we known of the parallels, we would not have published the article.” Crowley's position does not require Senate confirmation. Below are several of the most notable examples of taking plagiarism we found. Public support is a fluid dynamic: given information and analysis by leaders and elites, the public constantly weighs the benefits and research note prospects of success against the likely and actual costs and then reaches a determination as to note taking whether the likely outcome is worth the sacrifice. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and research paper note the ends and means are reevaluated. Traditionally, U.S. military operations have been explained and taking justified both in normative terms (stressing the importance of the principles and hopkins essay interests at stake) and pragmatic terms (stressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the involvement.) [42] Further, a focus on the particular objectives of the paper operation and the perceptions of the principles and interests that are involved establishes a connection between the objectives of the operation and parent the larger purpose behind it. In short, support can be thought of as a constant rebalancing of the benefits and prospects for success against the likely and note taking actual costs —and a determination of whether the argumentative essay lyrics outcome is research taking, judged worth the costs—all informed by leaders and experts. Thesis! As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated.

Such a model, engendering both normative and pragmatic considerations, clearly has a great deal of intuitive appeal, but why should we believe that this is what is at work? First, as a practical matter, U.S. military operations are typically explained and justified both in normative terms—stressing the importance of the principles and interests that are at stake—and pragmatic terms—stressing the paper taking good prospects and johns essay reasonable costs of the intervention. Such a framework captures both the“operational code” of political leaders and the enduring concerns of the public. Second, a focus on the particular objectives of the research paper note operation and the perceptions of the principles and interests that are engaged establishes a connection between the objectives of a given operation and the larger purposes it is promoting. Following the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on a long-term program of increasing its strength in paper strategic weapons . As Gaddis points out, the Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding military buildup for three main reasons: first, because it underestimated the extent to paper note taking which the Soviets were building; second, because Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was convinced that the American strategic programs had reached the point of diminishing returns ; and third, because the escalating costs of the Vietnam war made the on wisdom administration reluctant to go to Congress with requests for expensive new systems to paper taking counter Soviet increases . [155] Following its humiliation in the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on book symbols, a steady, longterm program of bolstering its strength in strategic weapons. The Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding American buildup , partly because it underestimated the extent of what the research paper note taking Russians were doing, partly because McNamara had become convinced that the point of diminishing returns in American strategic programs had been reached, but partly also because the book symbols mushrooming costs of the Vietnsam War made the administration reluctant to go to research taking Congress with requests for expensive new systems to counter Soviet increases. Moreover, in order to test the approach against competing explanations , one needs to understand what individual leaders were thinking when they were developing or modifying the grand strategy and manipulating conflict, either by prolonging it or by resolving it.

An area specialist would be at an advantage over essay music lyrics, the generalist in applying the model to particular cases , though both benefit from the paper parsimony inherent in the model. Finally, to test the thesis approach against competing explanations it is important to understand what leaders were actually thinking when they were creating new grand strategies , launching mobilization drives, and manipulating or prolonging conflict with foreign powers. To complete this task, one needs to do archival research, sometimes in a foreign language. All of these demands privilege the note area expert over the generalist in applying the mobilization model to particular cases . Perceiving fundamental changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around newly-designed long-term strategies to respond to those shifts and to preempt any resulting negative consequence. Essay On Wisdom Doesn Come! In both of Christensen’s cases, the security strategies were launched during peacetime, requiring creative and vigorous approaches to selling the strategies in order to persuade the public to support them.

The apparently undesirable move of manipulating or prolonging a short-term conflict with another nation then became useful in research note taking rallying and maintaining public support for the basic grand strategy . Viewing basic changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around long-term strategies , designed to respond to those shifts . In both cases the strategies adopted required significant public sacrifice in peacetime, so the leaders faced difficulties in selling those strategies to their respective publics. The manipulation or extension of short-term conflict with the music other nation , while not desirable on straightforward international or domestic grounds, became useful in gaining and maintaining public support for research paper note the core grand strategy. The generally accepted definition of cooperation is “when actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of book symbols policy coordination.” This dissertation shall argue that perceived preferences are just as important as actual or anticipated ones, and that cooperation occurs when each side simultaneously affects the other’s calculations and expectations until they reach some level of common interest. Research Paper! The policy coordination that is generated from admission reaching this level implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce , if not necessarily minimize, their negative consequences for the other states . This compound definition of cooperation involves several important principles. First, it assumes that each actor’s behavior is directed toward some goal or goals , which need not be the same for all of the actors involved, but that the behavior is rational and grounded in research some degree of self-interest. Second , it implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains that they concluded could not be achieved through individualistic action.

The distribution of paper gains need not be the same across the board, but the gains are mutual . A notable feature of the recent literature on international cooperation is the acceptance of research paper note a common definition of the phenomenon. Following Robert Keohane, a number of scholars have defined cooperation as occurring “when actors adjust their behavior to argumentative essay music the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination.” Policy coordination , in turn, implies that the policies of research each state have been adjusted to reduce their negative consequences for other states . This conception of cooperation consists of two important elements. First, it assumes that each actor’s behavior is directed toward some goal(s) . It need not be the same goal for all the actors involved, but it does assume rational behavior on their part. Second , the definition implies that cooperation provides the thesis actors with gains or rewards. The gains need not be in the same magnitude or kind for each state, but they are mutual . The numbers issue in international relations consists of the debate over the relative stability of bipolar and multipolar systems (which is really a debate about the impact of the number of paper taking significant players on international conflict and book symbols cooperation) and of the debate over the impact of hegemonic stability and international regimes on cooperation. [15] Numbers affect the potential for and success of research paper taking cooperation in several ways.

First, cooperation requires the johns hopkins essay recognition of opportunities for the promotion of research taking mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once they have been identified . In international relations, the wireless networking numbers problem has been central to two debates. Research Paper Taking! The longstanding controversy over the stability of bipolar versus multipolar systems reduces to a debate over the impact of the number of significant actors on international conflict . A more recent controversy, between proponents of the theory of hegemonic stability and advocates of international regimes , reduces to a debate over wireless networking, the effects of large numbers on research, the robustness of cooperation. How do numbers affect the likelihood of cooperation? There are at least three important channels of influence. First, cooperation requires recognition of opportunities for the advancement of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once these opportunities have been identified . This strategy was mapped out by Kissinger and his team in four foreign policy reports between 1970 and 1973 that set forth explicitly most of the book symbols fundamental elements of the Nixon strategy—the use of negotiations to research note integrate the single parent essay Soviet Union into the existing order; the idea of linkage; the possibility of a new relationship with China ; and the Nixon Doctrine —“often before events had taken place that made possible their realization.” [15] There followed a detailed discussion, often at a philosophical level, that set forward with surprising explicitness most of the research paper taking fundamental elements of the Nixon strategy— the research taking use of negotiations to integrate the note Soviet Union into the existing international order, the idea of linkage, the possibility of a new relationship with China, the Nixon Doctrine —often before events had taken place that made possible their implementation. First, Nixon and Kissinger sought to address the parent essay changing nature of power. States’ influence could no longer be measured by a single gauge such as military capabilities. With the Soviet Union rapidly approaching parity with the United States, the practical utility of nuclear weapons had further decreased. Kissinger had remarked repeatedly that the strategic balance had not affected the outcome of any crisis since 1962 . The constraints of public opinion and the problems of gradual escalation in Vietnam demonstrated the limits of conventional force . And economic, territorial, and ideological resources were o f rapidly diminishing importance in terms of real geopolitical influence.

Underlying all of paper note taking these trends, notes Gaddis, “the perception of power had become as important as power itself.” [4] As Kissinger believed, it was no longer possible for the United States to think of the balance of book symbols power as a “zero-sum game,” in research paper note which gains for one side meant losses for thesis the other .[5] Since policy had changed to recognize military, political, and economic strength as separate components of power, nations were freer to offset disproportionate strength in one category by emphasizing their strength in another. It was possible under this definition, then, to have a multipolar equilibrium. A loss for the United States, as in research note Vietnam or in the Soviet gain of strategic parity, could be compensated for by gains in our own areas, as in the opening to China and a strategic arms control agreement. The individual areas of competition were deemed far less important than the overall measure of book symbols power-—or the perception of it. Vietnam had skewed the American policy perspective; the objective of a reemphasis on global relationships was to restore it.

The first requirement for such a deepening was to recognize the multidimensional nature of power in the world: there was no single index by which the influence of states could be measured. Nuclear weapons , given the constraints on their use in research paper taking an approaching era of parity , were of decreasing practical utility . Kissinger liked to wireless thesis point out that in no crisis since 1962 had the strategic balance determined the note taking outcome. Vietnam had amply demonstrated the limits of wireless conventional military force applied under constraints imposed by paper taking public opinion and the dangers of escalation. Ideology was proving to essay be a feeble force when arrayed against the compulsions of nationalism; territory bore little relationship to political influence; economic strength seemed at times to have little to do with any of these. And, underlying all of these complexities, there was the increasing importance of paper taking psychology: the perception of power had become as important as power itself. It was too simplistic, therefore, to continue thinking of the balance of power as a zero sum game, in which gains for one side invariably meant losses for the other . 6 What might appear as a loss in one area—the stalemate in Vietnam , for example, or the come age Soviet attainment of strategic parity—could be compensated for by gains in others—an opening to China , or a negotiated settlement on arms control . It was the overall calculus of power that was important, not the defeats or victories that might take place in paper taking isolated theaters of competition. The Kennedy and Johnson administrations had erred by making Vietnam a symbol of American power and commitment throughout the research note world. The Nixon administration, taking advantage of its more ecumenical definition of power, would seek to reduce Vietnam to its proper perspective—a small peninsula on a major continent, as Kissinger put it 7 —and to paper note concentrate on global relationships. For example , even the few Chinese threats to enter the argumentative essay music Korean war may have been more effective had Washington not been consumed with launching the new grand strategy.

Similarly, the research paper note taking need to preserve whatever remained of that mobilization made Nixon more likely to curtail American involvement in Vietnam than he otherwise would have been. This may help to parent essay illuminate for leaders why other leaders take the actions they do given a mobilization situation. Paper Note Taking! If foreign leaders recognize that initial mobilization is often accompanied by a short- term but intense anti-foreign campaign, then they may avoid drawing incorrect and possibly dangerous assumptions from hopkins essay those actions. Further, if foreign leaders understand that a long-term mobilization is losing its momentum at taking, home, they may be able to foresee a realignment of that nation’s foreign policy that may include more cooperative policies. In either case, it may not be necessary for foreign leaders to assume that such posturing will lead to music lyrics long-term hostile or conciliatory policies. If Mao had understood American politics during the initial cold war mobilization, he might not have felt as threatened by American actions in Korea and Taiwan and may have resisted sending Chinese troops into Korea . For example, Chinese threats to enter the Korean War might have proven more effective . Not only did the taking needs of book symbols mobilization make Truman less likely to paper compromise in Korea, but they precluded sturdy lines of communication and thereby muted Chinese deterrent warnings. On a more practical level, if foreign leaders understand that early-stage mobilization is often accompanied by short- lived but fiery antiforeign posturing, then they might avoid drawing inappropriate and dangerous conclusions from the behavior of mobilizing states. There may be no reason for the challenged nation to infer irredentism or the inevitability of long-term aggression from a mobilizer’s hostile postures. Note! If Mao had understood the politics of Cold War mobilization in the United States, he might not have concluded from American actions in note Korea and Taiwan that the United States was planning to invade Manchuria.

He might not have felt as threatened by those American actions and therefore might not have felt compelled to send Chinese forces into Korea . A traditional realist, Kissinger believed that a more precise and effective conceptualization of interests required “no illusions” and the recognition that conflict and competition were immutable facts of essay doesn come age international life . The United States would always have to function within the international system, contrary to the idealists’ hope that someday the U.S. could extricate itself from the system’s base and corrupting operations. For Kissinger, these unrealistic dreams distorted reality and policy, generating the wild extremes of isolationism and research paper note overextension . Accept the unpleasantries of the world, thought Kissinger, and research paper note taking then design policy to manage them. [7] Despite the acceptance of diversity as an inevitable condition in research world affairs, despite the recognition that it was not inconsistent with American security requirements, there lingered in the United States, Kissinger believed, a reluctance to accept the fact that conflict and disharmony were and would continue to book symbols be inescapable characteristics of research note taking international life . There was still the belief that somehow the United States might transcend the international order, instead of simply having to johns essay operate within it. These unrealistic hopes, and the corrosive effects of reality upon paper them, had produced oscillations between isolationism and overextension in the American approach to the world. In addition to Vietnamization, another practical manifestation of the counterweight strategy was the war between India and book symbols Pakistan in 1971. The crisis stemmed from West Pakistan’s refusal to grant autonomy to the people of East Pakistan, separated by a vast expanse of Indian territory . As the crisis escalated, the administration, using Pakistan as its secret channel to research note the Chinese, cautiously refrained from criticizing the Pakistani government and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it , despite reports of “selective genocide.” [147] A similar myopia seemed to shape official attitudes toward Pakistan during that country's bloody civil conflict and subsequent war with India in 1971. Essay On Wisdom Doesn Come! The crisis had arisen over research paper taking, West Pakistan's refusal to grant autonomy to essay come with age the citizens of East Pakistan, separated by some 1,000 miles of Indian territory . Officially sanctioned repression of the ensuing revolt there had grown to the stage, by March of research note taking that year, that State Department reports were speaking of selective genocide; later estimates would suggest that well over a million Bengalis had been killed. But the Nixon administration , intent on using Pakistan as an intermediary in its opening to Beijing, carefully refrained from criticizing the government in Islamabad and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it as long as possible. When Beijing stated its intention to downgrade relations with the United States unless the arms sales were stopped, the administration proposed reducing the sales gradually with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved. The Chinese continued to demand the complete cessation of sales and parent reverted to an earlier practice of equating the United States and taking Soviet Union as equally threatening “hegemonic” powers . [260] …negotiation dragged along, with the US proposing a gradual reduction of arms sales with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved and taking the PRC insisting that all sales be stopped.

To underline their point, the Chinese had reverted to their earlier and objectionable practice of taking equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally reprehensible “hegemonic” powers . Alex Caton is a 2015 Notre Dame graduate and a former James H. Dunn Fellow in the office of Governor Bruce Rauner. Grace Watkins is a senior at Notre Dame and a 2016 Rhodes and Truman Scholar.

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Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from research note taking, beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by using the table of contents. This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to essay music assist students and faculty in research note taking the preparation of theses. Wireless Thesis. The Institute is committed to the preservation of each student's thesis because it is both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of research original research that contains information of lasting value. The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries (14N-118,, 617-253-5136). The academic department is required to deliver the proper number of copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72). One copy is essay on wisdom come with, kept as part of the permanent archival collection, and the other copy is paper note, reserved for future disposition.

An online catalog record, which includes the wireless thesis thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. This information appears in Barton, our online catalog, which is accessible to researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and individuals worldwide. PhD and ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by paper taking the Libraries, a digital version is created and made publicly available in DSpace@MIT ( Copies of essay on wisdom doesn age theses may be obtained through the MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668;; Students may choose to submit a born-digital PDF of the thesis via the Libraries voluntary submission portal ( However, the note electronic version is not considered to be the official copy.

Degree candidates must submit the required copies of music their theses to the appropriate office of the note taking department or program in which they are registered on single the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The Academic Calendar may be found in the MIT Bulletin and at September, February, and June are the only months in which degrees are awarded. Additional copies of the thesis may be required by the department. All theses should be turned in to taking the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the book symbols last day of term. Taking. In this guide, the research taking copy that remains in the Archives is paper, called the on wisdom doesn come with age first copy . Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to research paper note taking as the second and (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for copies in addition to those required for the Libraries. The student may, of course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to essay on wisdom doesn come age the Archives.

If your department does, only one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee. Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for the Libraries Ђ“ one for the Archives and a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is required only when a student is submitting the same thesis to note departments or programs from two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and wireless networking Engineering). If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an additional copy of the title page and abstract stapled to it is also required.

Most MIT theses are written by paper note a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. The title page of the thesis should bear the book symbols signatures of paper note all authors and thesis supervisors. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, Submission of Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database. Abstracts of all doctoral theses (PhD and ScD) will be submitted for inclusion in ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an online database used by researchers around the world. Parent. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract. All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the full text are available from DSpace@MIT or the MIT Libraries' Document Services.

Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by research note UMI/ProQuest. Please complete the UMI/ProQuest form at, staple it to a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the form, choose the hopkins admission appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the form. Note Taking. Please take care both in parent essay choosing terms and writing them (if filling out the note taking form by hand). Book Symbols. Subject-based access to note taking your thesis will depend on parent the accuracy of the information you provide and the precision with which it is transcribed by UMI/ProQuest. It is especially important that your name appear on this form exactly as it does on the title page and abstract of your thesis.

CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS. All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to paper the MIT Libraries by the student's department, must have prior approval from the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. When the purpose is to doesn come correct significant errors in content, the student should create an errata sheet using the research note taking form and instructions at and on wisdom with obtain approval from both thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the student should fill out the application form at and have the paper request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and essay on wisdom with age the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible.

Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for a doctoral thesis ($50 for processing and $65 for the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and research $50.00 for all other advanced-degree theses. Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. Thesis charges are billed to the studentЂ™s account when the thesis title is entered on the degree application. Please refer to the academic calendar on the RegistrarЂ™s website to review relevant deadline dates. All copies must be submitted to thesis the studentЂ™s department unbound between cardboard covers; the thesis and covers should be clipped or tied together, NOT stapled or punched. Recycled temporary covers and binder clips are available in a cabinet in the first floor stairwell of Hayden Library, near the circulation desk. The front cover should be labeled with the following information: author's name, thesis title, course, month and note year of graduation, and which copy it is (first, second, or third).

The MIT Libraries pay for the binding of johns essay theses retained in their collection. Personal copies may be bound in hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area. The Institute's policy concerning ownership of thesis copyright is covered in Rules and Regulations of the paper note Faculty , 2.73. ( and MIT Policies and single parent essay Procedures 13.1.3 ( The following are guidelines to assist the student in determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to research paper taking theses if: the thesis research is performed in whole or in part by the student with financial support in the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from note, funds administered by the Institute. the thesis research is performed in research paper note whole or in part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of parent essay thesis copyrights when the only form of support is (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of which do not include research activities) and (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the trainee or fellow may be required to grant certain publishing rights to NSF or NIH).

Actual determination of a student's status is made by reference to the account from which the research paper note taking student receives support. Questions regarding restrictions imposed on any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to the appropriate contract administrator in the Office of Sponsored Programs ( Essay. Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, When copyright ownership is paper, held by the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to the Institute to reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the thesis, and must place the following legend on the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created. For such theses, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. When copyright is held by lyrics the Institute, students and third parties should contact the research paper taking MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, to obtain permission to reuse thesis content in other publications. Argumentative Essay Music. However, the student is authorized to post electronic versions of the research paper taking studentЂ™s own thesis, in whole or in part, on the World Wide Web. Any further publication of the thesis in whole or in johns hopkins admission part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in consultation with the taking head of the department or course in which the student was registered when the wireless networking thesis was accepted. Regardless of whether copyright is held by the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the research taking thesis electronically in DSpace@MIT ( allowing open access viewing and limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office ( The waiver shall be granted only if the retained rights of the student as described in this guide are inadequate for the studentЂ™s needs and if a license from the Institute to the student would also be inadequate.

Any such waiver of the InstituteЂ™s copyright shall be subject to essay a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to paper publicly distribute copies of the thesis, in whole or in thesis part. The student must also place the legend above on the thesis title page. Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on the thesis. Copyright notice consists of four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it © and/or the word copyright, the year of publication (the year in which the degree is to be awarded), the name of the copyright owner, and research paper the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on the title page (or verso of the title page). student is copyright owner: © 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is copyright owner: © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Single Essay. All rights reserved.

See sample title pages. A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis. Each student is responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in taking the thesis. This applies to most third-party materials (i.e., those created and book symbols published by someone else); it may also apply to the studentЂ™s own previous work. If, for paper note example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to the journal's publisher, the student has no further rights in the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to parent essay include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis. Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the research Office of the General Counsel ( If the student knows, prior to wireless publication or employment, that such material will be included in research paper note a thesis, he or she may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to hopkins use the material.

Further information is available at Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries ( or by contacting for paper taking more information. POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES. Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT's policy of open research and the free interchange of information. Written notification of patent holds and single parent essay other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the note taking thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by the Archives. When there is good reason for book symbols delaying the distribution of paper taking a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at book symbols When MIT holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office ( to determine if a patent application is to be filed. If so, the research paper taking Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and the thesis will be withheld from distribution for up to three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research, who will inform the Archives if an extension is essay on wisdom doesn with, approved. When a student holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses.

If the hold is granted, the dean will inform the Archives, and research paper note taking the thesis will be withheld for wireless networking a period of three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for research note Research. A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the privacy or safety of the argumentative music author, other individuals, or organizations.

If the thesis cannot be rewritten to research paper note remove the problematic material, the author and supervisor should submit the thesis to the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the Vice President for Research. Research Paper Note Taking. The appropriate office will advise the Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum. The title page is always considered to be page 1, and paper note taking every page must be included in essay the count regardless of whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and all text and appendices) must be paginated in one consecutive numbering sequence. Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page (starting with the title page and including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the numbering sequence. Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on the left.

Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works.

Therefore, be sure to select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on research note most computer keyboards and would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the argumentative essay lyrics J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the signed title page is acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the title, name of the author, previous degrees, the degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the research taking degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and appropriate names and signatures.

For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to with age be awarded should appear on research paper the title page. For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on the title page and the signatures of both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required. Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to the thesis.

Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in paper UMI/ProQuestЂ™s Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Longer abstracts will be edited and shortened by paper UMI/ProQuest . Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of abstracts, so the presence of significant key words in a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the title page. Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and hopkins honors, titles of research paper note taking publications, teaching and professional experience, and parent other matters that may be pertinent.

An acknowledgment page may also be included. These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT, which is regularly crawled and paper indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent. Further information is available on the web site of the MIT Writing Center ( NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the research paper note text. Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the specified margins (see section below).

It may be appropriate to research note place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in essay which they occur or at the end of the thesis.. The same paper size and paper note taking quality, pagination, margins, notes, and wireless illustration requirements apply to research paper appendices. They support the research in your thesis and should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work. Page numbering should continue the consecutive pagination of the thesis. For the main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and should not be script or italic. Italics may, however, be used for short quotations or to hopkins admission highlight variables in an equation, for example. Note. Notes and the text in thesis tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at least an inch wide (1) to allow for note binding and hopkins essay trimming. All information (text headings, notes, and illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the text area. Theses should be prepared using both sides of the research paper taking paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in johns during the binding procedure.

The text of the thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced. The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on Athena, follow the formatting and typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers on any Athena workstation. If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to the required specifications, especially for the title page and pagination. Final copies should be printed on note taking the printer Thesis (11-004), which is on wisdom doesn come with age, stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper. First copy: For the paper first copy the paper must be chosen for its permanence and durability. Networking Thesis. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures. The paper must be (a) acidЂ‘neutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at research paper taking least 20-lb. weight, and (d) contain at least 25% cotton.

It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. Doesn Age. The following 20Ђ‘lb. watermarked acidЂ‘neutral papers are examples of paper those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond. Second copy: The paper for the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at with least 20-lb. Paper Taking. weight, and (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked. The following are not acceptable for either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from photocopy machines. The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other. If there are any questions about the acceptability of paper, contact the Institute Archives (, 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is on wisdom doesn age, 8Ѕ by 11 inches (see section on oversized pages).

DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other side. A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. Research Paper Taking. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the page numbers are either in the center or on book symbols the outside edge of each page. Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to an 8Ѕ-by-11-inch format. If material is research note, not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in single parent during the binding procedure. Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and converted to color PDFs for inclusion in DSpace@MIT. Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may Ђњbleed throughЂќ and compromise legibility for double-sided pages.

In such cases, use of research paper note single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. A single-sided photograph page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. All graphics must respect the research note 1Ђќ margins. Digital and magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and research paper note DVDs may accompany the parent written text of the taking thesis; one should accompany each copy of the thesis submitted . Wireless. No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in research note taking the future.

Therefore, when feasible, the information that is in these forms should also be represented in the written text of the thesis. A label containing the author's name, the argumentative music lyrics date of the research note thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications. Is the authorЂ™s full name on the title page and the abstract? (See sections on title page and essay come abstract.) Before submitting to your department. Are all necessary signatures on the title page of each copy? (See section on title page ) Institute Archives and Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office.

One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142. Office of the General Counsel. Office of the Dean for Graduate Education. Dean for Undergraduate Education. Office of the Vice President for research note Research.

Prepared by the MIT Libraries. as prescribed by with the Committee on Graduate Programs.

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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an important step in the startup process. It helps you and paper note taking your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. But because of all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the pain out hopkins essay of the process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on research taking, a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is a little like that, but more organized. Johns Hopkins! Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of paper note taking questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences.

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Updated on May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of research note taking, marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration.

Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of research taking, norms for formalising the note taking union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. Book Symbols. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex.

Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of paper taking, these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of research paper taking, sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Taking. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the research paper note spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Paper Note. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.

Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Essay. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by research paper taking custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and single a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”.

William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to research paper recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage.

There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to parent exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is research paper note, a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific.

The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in paper taking, the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement.

(5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and research paper woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in single essay, replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general.

Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of research, property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to on wisdom replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in research note, selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance.

Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the single perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the research note likelihood of book symbols, marriage and the continuation of research note taking, that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of admission essay, marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and note woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy.

Monogamy is wireless, that form of marriage in which at a given period of taking, time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at paper a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the research note taking most modern civilized way of parent, living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. Research Note. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per music lyrics, cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form.

When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Research Paper Taking. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the thesis world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Paper Note Taking. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family.

Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Argumentative Essay. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to research paper note Woman:

In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for on wisdom doesn, strengthening the note taking economic condition of the single essay family. 6. Research Note. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and argumentative music wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population.

Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of paper note, Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. Book Symbols. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by note taking their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness.

10. Come. Law is in paper note, favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of research paper note, marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation:

In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and note there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of johns hopkins admission essay, marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of paper note, choice then life loses its charm. Johns Hopkins. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids.

If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in paper note taking, monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon wireless thesis their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the research paper note taking economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men.

Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Research Note. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women.

According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is research paper note taking, plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is wireless networking thesis, highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of research paper note taking, both the on wisdom with sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is research taking, a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time.

It is the hopkins admission essay prevalent form of research paper, marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the parent essay privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of taking, marriage is single essay, found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of paper taking, India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features:

1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. With. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of note taking, sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Essay Music Lyrics. Disproportion of research paper note taking, sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in essay on wisdom with, number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population:

To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and research paper polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the essay music lyrics parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in research paper taking, the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to essay come with get male children. In some societies number of paper, wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in johns essay, order to prove their superiority.

A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and research taking prosperity the custom of doesn, polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the research paper people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for essay on wisdom doesn come, their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation:

The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Taking. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.

Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to book symbols obtain more children. 10. Absence of children:

According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:

Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is research note taking, almost zero, for admission, those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of paper note taking, Males:

In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home.

(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives.

Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in parent essay, a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only research note, husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of research note, that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property:

In polygyny all the research paper note taking children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of research paper taking, affection among the members. As such families have large number of research taking, members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society.

It is johns admission essay, a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Paper Note. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the essay on wisdom age offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in paper taking, Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of music lyrics, Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women:

According to Westermark, when the number of note taking, women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is on wisdom doesn come with age, less than male population. Paper. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name.

Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of wireless, Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to note taking support only one family.

Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in on wisdom doesn with age, some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from taking, modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. Networking Thesis. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family.

(2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the research note taking economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the paper note family because all the members work for research paper taking, the improvement of the book symbols family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and research paper note children feel quite secure.

Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the single parent family. (4) Property is research, kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is johns hopkins essay, kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands.

As a result she gets attention of research paper note, all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. Music. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to research paper note fulfill her basic needs. When all the on wisdom age men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to note taking select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the on wisdom come age Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only research note, has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the paper taking woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status.

They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of paper note, few years. This is another outcome of essay music, this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group.

Similarly, every woman is the wife of paper, every man of male group. Johns Hopkins Essay. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the research substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is networking, practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and note sexual sharing based on book symbols spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate:

In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. Research Paper. But when she marries to the younger brother of the book symbols dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife.

Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. Paper Note Taking. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the single parent man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is paper note, .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives.

Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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One Day Essay: Research Paper Note Taking Native…

Qualities of research note, a Strong Literary Argument Essay. Tell us how the curriculum is working in with age your classroom and send us corrections or suggestions for improving it. A. Unpacking Learning Targets (5 minutes) A. Unpacking the End of Unit 2 Assessment Prompt (10 minutes) B. Reading Like a Writer: Annotating the Model Essay about note, Rules in the Steve Jobs Speech (12 minutes) C. Analyzing Evidence-Based Claims: Essay about the wireless, Steve Jobs Speech (16 minutes) A. Reflection: Why Do We Analyze Models? (2 minutes) A. Review the novel and research paper taking the Bud’s Rules graphic organizer that you completed in Units 1 and 2. In preparation for Lesson 10, think about what claim you might make about single parent, how Bud used his rules. Bring both the Bud, Not Buddy novel and your Bud’s Rules graphic organizer to class for Lesson 10. literary argument, qualities.

A. Unpacking Learning Targets (5 minutes) Invite students to read along with you as you read the note, learning targets out loud: * “I can describe the qualities of a literary argument essay about Bud’s Rules.” * “I can analyze how evidence from the text supports a claim in the Steve Jobs model essay.” Explain that understanding a literary argument is key to their success in the next several lessons.

Begin with having them think about research note taking, what an paper note taking, argument is. Book Symbols? Ask students to discuss with an elbow partner: * “Think about a time that you were in research paper an argument with someone. What causes an argument?” Cold call on a pair to johns hopkins admission essay share their thinking. Ideally, students will say, “We disagreed about something,” or “We had different ideas.” Explain that in research note taking writing, there is wireless networking a difference between argument and opinion. In speaking, we often say we had an argument because we had a difference of opinion; but when we refer to writing, the meaning of the two words is different. Writing an paper note taking, opinion piece means that it’s something a person believes, whether or not the person has evidence to prove it. However, in on wisdom age a written argument, the author will make a claim, support it with reasons, and prove those reasons with evidence. Ask:

* “If a written argument is where the author makes a claim, supports it with reasons, and proves those reasons with evidence, what can you infer is a literary argument ?” After giving students some think time, ask for a volunteer to share their answer. Research Paper? Listen for wireless networking thesis, students to infer that a literary argument means the supporting reasons and paper note evidence come from a text, from a piece of literature. Write the definition of a literary argument on the board: “A literary argument is a piece of networking thesis, writing that makes a claim about taking, a literary text and uses details and evidence to support that claim.” Tell students that in order for paper taking, them to get ready to write their own essays, the lesson today will be focused on looking at what makes a strong literary argument in a model essay. A. Unpacking the End of Unit 2 Assessment Prompt (10 minutes) Distribute the End of Unit 2 Assessment Prompt: How Does Bud Use His Rules—To Survive or To Thrive? Argument Essay and display it using a document camera . Invite students to research paper taking follow along with you as you read the prompt aloud. Ask students to circle any unfamiliar words.

Clarify words as needed. Invite students to underline words and essay on wisdom doesn come with phrases on the prompt that will help them make a strong literary argument. Look for students to underline words and phrases such as: Establish a claim about whether Bud uses his rules to help him survive or thrive . Paper Taking? Write an introduction. To support your claim, use evidence about how Bud uses three of his rules. Wireless Networking? Provide closure to your essay with a conclusion.

Use relevant and specific text evidence, including direct quotations, to research taking support your claim. Explain how your evidence supports your claim. Use transitional words and johns hopkins phrases to research paper note make your writing cohesive and wireless networking thesis logical. Note? Invite students to close their eyes for a moment and envision themselves writing their essay. Ask them to think about music lyrics, what the research taking, essay needs to include and what thinking they need to do in order to write. Wireless Networking Thesis? Now have students open their eyes, get with a partner, and discuss the three questions displayed on research paper, the board. Display and ask: * “What is this prompt asking you to do?”

* “What will your writing have to include to address the essay music, question?” * “What thinking will you have to research do to complete that writing?” Refocus students whole group. Begin the essay on wisdom come with age, Qualities of a Strong Literary Essay anchor chart. Explain to students that they just discussed the paper, qualities of a strong literary argument essay. Qualities are the parts or the characteristics of something—in this case, the essay.

Cold call pairs to share the taking, qualities they discussed that will make this a strong literary argument essay. As students share their answers, put their answers into language from the rubric. For example, if a student says, “We have to choose a position,” you might write: “Make a claim = choosing a side.” Be sure the chart includes: * Make a claim . (Students may say, “Choose a side.”) * Choose text evidence that supports the claim. Research Paper Taking? (Students might say, “Pick rules to help back up your choice.”) * Explain how each piece of evidence supports the claim. (Students might say, “Add my own thinking” or “Explain the evidence.”) * Introduce the claim. (Students might say, “Write my claim in wireless thesis the beginning.”)

* Make it coherent. (Students might say, “Make it stick together; have everything connect.”) * Make it logical. Paper Note? (Students might say, “Have it make sense.”) For anything students do not identify on their own, add it to the anchor chart and explain why you are adding it. B. Reading Like a Writer: Annotating the Model Essay about Rules in essay the Steve Jobs Speech (12 minutes) Display and distribute the Model literary argument essay: “Steve Jobs’ Rules to Live By” . Research Taking? Congratulate students on essay doesn come with, beginning the criteria for a strong literary argument.

Tell them they will now begin reading like a writer, studying a model literary argument essay to see what they will be writing. Invite students to follow along while you read the Jobs essay out loud. Ask students to turn to their partner and talk about the gist of the essay. Prompt students with a few questions around the content of the essay, such as: * “What claim is the author of this essay making?” * “What is the purpose of the body paragraphs?” Explain that based on the great close reading of the prompt, students already know a strong essay will include a claim, text evidence, and taking an explanation of how the evidence supports the claim. Display a guide to coding the text where all students can see.

Direct their attention to the text codes (C, T, E) and ask them to write the codes on the top of the speech so they remember what they are: C=claim, T=text evidence, E=explanation. Students should use a “C” to identify a claim. Argumentative? They should use a “T” where they see text evidence. And they should use an “E” where the author of the essay explains the connection between the evidence and the claim. Read aloud the first two paragraphs of the text as students read along. Model the process of coding it: “Now I am going to read the first and second paragraph for you and code the text with our C, T, and/or E. Please follow along. Read: “ Life offers many opportunities to make choices.

Life can be both easy and hard. When we make choices during the easy or hard times, we are either surviving or thriving. Steve Jobs used his rules in his life to help him thrive. ” “I see a claim very clearly here, so I am writing a ‘C.’ The claim is that Jobs used his rules to thrive.” Read: “ … despite being orphaned, dropping out of college, being fired, and having cancer. ” “This phrase signals a lot of research paper, life experiences from the text, but we really want the rule as our text evidence here.” Read: “ In his commencement address to book symbols Stanford University in 2005, Jobs shared his three rules to follow in order to taking thrive in life. ” “This is the claim again at the end where I’m writing ‘C.’” Read: “ Steve Jobs shared his first rule: ‘You have to doesn come with trust in something .’” “This is research note taking his text evidence here, so I’ll write a ‘T.’” Read: “He told the paper note, graduates that each choice in our lives is a dot, and we should trust in those choices. Taking? He said this was more important than spending time worrying about how all the dots connect in wireless networking the future. Jobs followed his rule to trust his gut and research paper enrolled in a calligraphy college course, and that led to the typefaces and spacing used in computers today.

Following the rule to trust in something helped Jobs thrive in life because he trusted in himself and networking thesis didn’t spend energy worrying about the future.” “The rest of the paragraph is the writer’s explanation about the rule and how Jobs used the rule to thrive. I’ll place an ‘E’ next the whole section.” Check for student understanding by research paper taking asking students to show a Fist to Five if you understand how I coded our model essay.” Note any students who have less than a three and circulate to those students first when they work on Paragraph 2. Prompt students to read the networking thesis, rest of the paragraphs of the model essay annotating the text with a C, T, and E. Research Paper Note Taking? Circulate and observe student annotations, making note of whether students are able to find the text evidence and the explanations. Research Note Taking? Give students a minute to review their annotation. Then have them turn to a partner and discuss their annotations. Paper Note? Most likely, you will notice some students struggling to make a decision about whether part of the essay is a T or an E, or whether they should code T and E for the same part of the essay.

Let them know that explaining supporting evidence is the analysis part of the essay, and that they are on essay, the right track noticing the challenge of it. C. Analyzing Evidenced-Based Claims: Essay about the Steve Jobs Speech (16 minutes) Display the blank Jobs Speech: Analyzing Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer . Paper Note Taking? Invite a volunteer to tell you how she or he coded the third paragraph. For example, a student might tell you to code a “T” on “‘Love what you do’ and research paper note do what you love,” and research taking both a “T” and an “E” on “Jobs overcame being fired and followed that rule. He continued doing what he loved, working on johns hopkins, computer systems and starting companies such as Pixar. By choosing to do what he loved, Steve Jobs stayed true to himself and thrived regardless of the tough times.” Write the rule in the “text evidence” box of the taking, graphic organizer and the other quote in the “explaining the wireless networking, thinking” box of the graphic organizer in the middle row. Refer to Jobs Speech: Analyzing Evidence-Based Claim graphic organizer (for Teacher Reference) for research paper note, examples. Model for students how to think about using text evidence in their explanations. To the essay music lyrics, student who shared her or his annotations, you might say: “I can tell you understand that text evidence includes the rule to live by. Good. This is clear text evidence.

I also see you identifying the last line as both text evidence and explaining the support of the claim. A good way to figure this out is to ask yourself, ‘What is the line mostly doing? Stating text evidence or clarifying the author’s thinking about how Jobs used the rule?’ In this case, the part you labeled ‘T’ and ‘E’ clearly had some text evidence in it with the research note, author’s own thinking. Parent? But the purpose of the line was to explain how Jobs used the rule to thrive in life—the explanation. So it should be labeled only with an E.” Invite students to Think-Pair-Share: * “With your partner, review the fourth paragraph, asking yourselves, ‘What is each section of this paragraph doing?

Supporting the claim with text evidence or explaining how Jobs used his rule?’” * “Revise any annotations, based on your discussion.” Refocus students whole group. Research? Invite a volunteer to share how she or he coded the paragraph. Listen for an explanation that the ‘T’ is the rule “to live each day as if it was your last,” and book symbols that the ‘E’—the explanation of how Jobs used that rule—was “Jobs followed his heart and intuition with the calligraphy class.

He found courage to get over fears of what others thought about him after getting fired from research note taking Apple. He knew death was a part of life, and remembering this each day helped him ensure he was doing what he really wanted most days of book symbols, his life. By living the rule, Jobs thrived.” Write student thinking on the graphic organizer. Explain that you are filling in a model of the paper note taking, graphic organizer they will use in Lesson 10 for argumentative essay music lyrics, their own essay. Ask students to give a thumbs-up or thumbs-down if they felt successful separating the text evidence from the explanations. Note the students who show a thumbs-down and may need more scaffolding to separate text evidence and explanations in Lesson 10.

A. Reflection: Why Do We Analyze Models? (2 minutes) Ask students to talk with a partner. Encourage them to look back at the anchor chart they created and see if they can make connections between the work they did in class and the chart. Ask: * “Why are we studying our model essay so closely?” Invite volunteers to share their answers. Guide students to understand that they are reading like writers as they study the model essay in preparation for writing their own essay. Analyzing the text is specifically helping them to identify the research paper taking, content and evidence they need to research paper include in a strong essay.

Note: If you have not already launched independent reading, do so before or during Lesson 10. See Unit 2 Overview for details. Research Note? Students will need to be ready to read their independent reading book for homework beginning in Lesson 10. Created by EL Education, on book symbols, behalf of Public Consulting Group, Inc. Paper Taking? Public Consulting Group, Inc., with a perpetual license granted to EL Education, Inc. Get updates about our new K-5 curriculum as new materials and tools debut. Tell us what's going well, share your concerns and johns send any mistakes you have caught. To learn more about EL Education, visit Unless otherwise indicated, all work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC BY NC SA).

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